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Flashcards in Lower limb (leg) Deck (18)
1

What are the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg?

- Tibialis anterior

- Extensor hallucis longus

- Extensor digitorum longus

- Fibularis tertius

2

What are the muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh?

Superficial group:

- Gastrocnemius

- Soleus

- Plantaris

- Popliteus

Deep group:

- Flexor hallucis longus

- Flexor digitorum longus

- Tibialis posterior

3

What is the blood supply to the leg?

1. Main blood supply to the leg is by the popliteal artery, which enters the deep compartment of the leg between the 2 heads of gastrocnemius.

2. It then passes deep through the tendinous arch of the soleus.

3. It bifurcates into the anterior and posterior tibial artery.

4. Anterior tibial artery enters anterior comartment of the leg through aperture in porximal interosseus memrbane.

5. Posterior tibial artery descends on the superficial surfaces of tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus.

6. On surface of tibialis posterior, it gives off the fibular artery, which descends in parallel to the posterior tibial artery.

4

What is the significance of having 2 planterflexion muscles?

- Gastrocnemius is for planterflexion during locomotion.

- Soleus is for planterflexion when maintaing upright position.

5

What is the course of the tibial nerve?

1. Passes into deep compartment of the leg between the 2 heads of gastrocnemius.

2. It passes down the leg on the superficial surface of tibialis posterior.

3. It is associated with the popliteal artery and then the posterior tibial artery.

6

What is the course of the sural nerve?

1. Branch of the tibial nerve and descends on the superficial surface of gastrocnemius,

2. Penetrates the deep fascia to become superficial midway down the leg.

3. Passes posterior to lateral maleolus to enter foot.

7

What is the course of the great saphenous vein?

1. Originates from the medial side of the dorsal venous arch.

2. Passes anterior to the medial malleolus and posterior to the knee joint on the medial side.

3. Ascends up the medial side of the thigh and drains into the femoral vein in the femoral triangle, through opening in the cribriform fascia called the saphenous opening.

8

What is the course of the small saphenous vein?

1. Originates from the lateral side of the dorsal venous arch.

2. Passes posterior to the lateral malleolus and ascends up the posterior aspects of the leg along the midline.

3. It drains at a variable point into the popliteal vein.

9

What are the location of the perforating veins of the great saphenous vein?

- Just above the ankle

- Mid-calf

- Between the ankle and mid-calf

- Just inferior to the knee

- Just superior to the knee

10

What are the muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg?

- Fibularis longus

- Fibularis brevis

11

What type of joint is the ankle joint?

Synovial hinge joint

12

What is the structure of the ankle joint mortise?

- Superior: Distal end of tibia

- Lateral: Lateral malleolus

- Medial: Medial malleolus

13

What are the ligaments of the medial group of the ankle joint?

Deltoid ligament:

- Tibionavicular ligament

- Tibiocalcaneal ligament

- Anterior tibiotalar ligament

- Posterior tibiotalar ligament

 

14

What are the ligaments of the medial group of the ankle joint?

- Anterior talofibular ligament

- Posterior talofibular ligament

- Calcaneofibular ligament

15

What are the components of the subtalar joint?

1. Posterior talocalcaneal joint

2. Talocalcaneonavicular joint

16

What is the structure of the posterior talocalcaneal joint?

Articulation between:

- Calcaneal facet: Inferoposterior surface of talus

- Talar facet: Superoposterior surface of calcaeus

17

What is the structure of the talocalcaneonavicular joint?

Talocalcaneal articulation:

- Anterior and middle calcaneal facets: inferior surface of talus.

- Anterior and middle superior facets: Body of sustentaculum tali.

Talonavicular articulation:

- Posterior surface of navicular.

- Head of talus. 

18

How much weight does the fibula take when in upright position?

25%