What are the features of the femur?
- Greater trochanter
- Lesser trochanter
- Intertrochanteric line
- Intertrochanteric crest
- Linea aspera
- Popliteal surface
- Supracondylar lines
- Femoral condyles
- Adductor tubercle
What are the angles of inclination and torsion of the femur?
Angle of inclination: 125°
Angle of torsion: 12°
What are the proximal attachments of the fascia lata?
- Inguinal ligament
- Iliac crest
- Sacrotuberous ligament
What are the distal attachments of the fascia lata?
- Tibial condyles
- Head of fibula
What are the functions of the iliotibial tract?
1. Stabilises extended leg
2. Stabilises hip joint
What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle?
Lateral: Medial border of sartorius
Medial: Medial border of adductor longus
Base: Inguinal ligament
What is the floor of the femoral triangle?
- Adductor longus (medial)
- Iliopsoas (lateral)
What are the contents of the femoral triangle (lateral to medial)?
- Femoral nerve (not in femoral sheath)
- Femoral artery
- Femoral vein
- Lymphatics (in femoral canal)
What are the relations of the saphenous opening?
- Lateral and 3 cm inferior to the pubic tubercle.
- Covered by cribiform fascia
What is the course of the femoral artery?
1. The femoral artery is a continuation of the external iliac artery past the inguinal ligament.
2. It passes through the femoral triangle lateral to the femoral bein.
3. It leaves the femoral triangle through the adductor canal.
4. It leaves the adductor canal and the anterior compartment of the thigh through the adductor hiatus (in adductor magnus).
5. As it passes through adductor magnus, it becomes the popliteal artery.
What are the boundaries of the adductor canal?
- Roof: Sartorius
- Medial: Adductor lungus/magnus
- Lateral: Vastus medialis
What is the course of the profunda femoris artery?
1. The profunda femoris originates from the lateral aspects of the femoral artery.
2. It passes posteriorly between adductor longus (anterior) and:
- Adductor brevis
- Adductor magnus
3. Its terminal branch (4th perforating branch) anastomoses with the popliteal artery around the knee joint.
What are the branches of the profunda femoris artery?
1. Medial/lateral circumflex femoral artery
2. 3 perforating banches
What is the course of the saphenous nerve?
1. The saphenous nerve is a branch of the femoral nerve.
2. It accompanies the femoral vessels in the adductor canal but does not pass through the adductor hiatus.
3. It continues down the medial aspects of the leg to supply the skin over the medial side of the knee, leg and foot.
What are the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh?
1. Rectus femoris
2. Vastus medialis
3. Vastus intermedius
4. Vastus lateralis
What are the structural features of semimembranosus?
Upper part consists of a flat membrane.
What are the structural features of semitendinosus?
It becomes a cord-like tendon midway down the thigh and travels in a gutter on the superficial surface of semimembranosus.
What are the muscles that attach to the pes anserinus?
- Sartorius (anterior)
- Gracilis (intermediate)
- Semitendinosus (posterior)
What is the course of the sciatic nerve?
1. The sciatic nerve enters the posterior compartment of the thigh.
2. It descends on the superficial surface of adductor magnus and is crossed by the long head of biceps femoris.
3. Superior to the knee, it splits into the tibial (medial) and common fibular (lateral) nerves.
What are the muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh?
1. Biceps femoris