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Flashcards in UWorld-Mixed Deck from All Subjects Deck (56)
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1

anti-centromere antibodies are found in most patients with

CREST syndrome

2

what the classic triad of reactive arthritis and what HLA gene is it associated with

asymmetric aseptic arthritis, conjunctivitis, urethritis ("can't see can't pee can't bend my knee)

associated with HLA-B27 along with the other seronegative spondyloarthropathies

3

what kind of drug are nafcillin, methicillin and oxacillin and what general kind of infection/ pathogen do they usually treat

penicillinase-resistant penicillins;
they treat S. aureus (except MRSA) and are often used for skin, soft tissue and follicle infections

4

a child with intellectual disability and bilateral lens subluxation that dies of MI could have been treated with what

pyridoxine (vit B6) for homocysteinuria, most commonly caused by cystathione synthase deficiency, which is catalyzed by vitamin B6

5

what are two reasons that niacin can cause increase side effects when given to a patient on anti-hypertensive therapy

niacin potentiates anti-hypertensive drugs by causing vasodilation

niacin can cause hyperuricemia as can thiazides

6

winged scapula involves injury to what nerve

long thoracic nerve (innervation to serratus anterior)

7

what is the normal A-a gradient and what respiratory conditions involve a normal A-a gradient

10-15mmHg;
hypoventilation and high altitude have normal A-a gradient

8

ataxia, increased risk of sinopulmonary infections and telangiectasias are the classic triad for

ataxia telangiectasia

9

what effect does COPD have on cerebral vasculature

COPD causes rising pCO2 and hypercapnia causes cerebral vasodilation

10

what are entacapone and tolcapone, how do they work and what do they treat

COMT inhibitors;
they increase levodopa levels in the brain and are used to treat Parkinson's

11

what kind of UV do PABA esters absorb
what kind of UV do zinc oxide containing sunscreens absorb

PABA esters absorb UVB only;

zinc oxide containing sunscreens are broad-spectrum and absorb UVAI, UVAII and UVB

12

what kind of UV does avobenzone absorb

UVAI and UVAII

13

which DNA viruses are enveloped, which are naked

enveloped=herpes virus, hepadnavirus, and poxvirus

naked=picornavirus, adenovirus, papillomavirus, polyomavirus

14

which DNA viruses are circular

papillomavirus, polyomavirus are circular and hepadnavirus is partially circular

15

name two echinocandins and explain the mechanism of action

capsofungin and micafungin;
inhibit synthesis of beta-glucan, a component of fungal cell walls

16

a smoker comes down with an acute illness involving very high fever, confusion, diarrhea and headache;
gram-stain shows no bacteria; what is the causal pathogen and the disease

Legionella pneumophila causes Legionnaire's disease and often doesn't show up on gram-stain

17

what differentiates Tay Sachs (beta-hexosaminidase A deficiency) from Niemann-Pick (sphingomyelinase deficiency)

no hepatomegaly in Tay-Sachs

(note: cherry red spot on macula and progressive neurodegeneration seen in both)

18

bilateral accoustic neuromas are associated with what condition and what chromosome is affected

neurofibromatosis 2
NF2 gene on chromosome 22

19

streak ovaries (underdeveloped elongated ovaries) are a classic sign of what condition

Turner's syndrome

20

how do you calculate attributable risk percentage

ARP= (RR-1) / RR

21

where is ACE produced

mainly in the endothelial cells of the pulmonary vasculature

22

where is prostaglandin E1 produced and what does it do

prostaglandin E1 is a locally produced vasodilator produced by almost all tissues in the body

23

pigmented gallstones are an indication of what process

hemolytic anemia

24

which test models the relationship between a continuous dependent variable and continuous independent variable

linear regression

25

what statistical test compares the means of two groups of continuous variables

t-test

26

name three cardiac defects that produce a holosystolic murmur

VSD, tricuspid regurg. and mitral regurg.

27

renal angiomyolipomas and ash-leaf patches are associated with what condition

tuberous sclerosis

28

which DNA polymerase has 5' to 3' exonuclease activity

DNA polymerase I has both 3' to 5' and 5' to 3' exonuclease activity

29

how do benzodiazepines work;
which other psych drugs have a similar mechanism of action

allosterically binding GABAa receptor to increase Cl channel opening (causing hyperpolarization)

30

what kinds of receptors are GABAa, GABAb and GABAc

GABAa and GABAc are ion channels that increase Cl influx
GABAb is a G protein that (1) increases K+ efflux, (2) decreases Ca2+ influx and (3) inhibits adenylyl cyclase