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Flashcards in Kaplan Heme/Lymph 1 Deck (33):
1

What condition are Birbeck granules associated with?

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (Histiocytosis X)

2

What cancer is Philidelphia chromosome associated with?

Chronic myeloid leukemia (and occassionally acute lymphocytic leukemia

3

what molecular marker is used to diagnose hairy cell leukemia?

tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase

4

what hematologic disorder is associated with elevate leukocyte alkaline phosphatase

myeloid metaplasia

5

explain the ristocetin test

ristocetin will only cause platelet agglutination in the presence of vWF so if you add it to blood and no agglutination occurs you can diagnose a deficiency of vWF

6

why is desmopressin an effective treatment for vWF disease?

desmopressin triggers release of vWF from Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells

7

what do Reed Sternberg cells look like on histology and what disease are they associated with

"owl-eye", bilobed "mirror-image" nucleus which may have a large nucleolus and clear halo around it
Hodgkin's Lymphoma

8

what component of the eosinophilic granules of an esosinophil is involved in parasite destruction

major basic protein

9

what is chromium-51 used for

to measure RBC survival

10

what processes are evidenced by decreased ESR

slower sedimentation and settling suggests sickle cell anemia (due to abnormal shape), polycythemia (many cells), CHF (mechanism unknown)

11

what kind of pathogens would elicit a high neutrophil count on the CBC differential

extracellular bacteria and parasites

12

what kind of pathogens would elicit a Th1 response

intracellular bacteria and viruses

13

A patient presenting with headaches and fatigue who has a past medical history of alcohol abuse and nodular liver on X-ray is shown to have 68% Hct and reticulocytosis as well as nucleated red cells. What's the likely diagnosis?

hepatocellular carcinoma

14

what does DIC do to fibrin degredation products, PT, PTT and bleeding time

increases FDP (low platelets due to coagulation), increases PT, increases PTT and increases bleeding time

15

what do ITP, TTP and HUS do to PT and PTT

nothing;
bleeding time is increased and platelet count decreased, but nothing happens to PT and PTT since coag factors aren't involved

16

celecoxib is contraindicated in patients with what general allergy

allergy to sulfa drugs

17

of the three analgesics acetaminophen, NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors, which is safest for a patient with history of cardiovascular disease

acetaminophen;
NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors have cardiovascular toxicity risk

18

what makes aspirin different from other NSAIDs

it is an irreversible cyclooxygenase inhibitor and it exerts more of its effects on COX-1 rather than COX-2

19

what is the protein defect in hereditary spherocytosis

spectrin

20

what are the weeks when fetal erythropoesis occurs in the four main organs that produce fetal blood

yolk sac (3-8 weeks)
liver (6 weeks-birth)
spleen (10-28 weeks)
bone marrow (18 weeks-adulthood)

21

what marker is upregulated in hairy cell leukemia and what CBC findings would you see

tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase
hairy cell leukemia causes pancytopenia

22

what disease are Birbeck granules associated with

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis X)

23

a cell that is granular on H&E and has a metachromatic cytoplasm on Giemsa stain

mast cell

24

what molecules do mast cells release

histamine, serotonin, platelet activating factor, leukotrienes

25

lytic bone lesions and monoclonal kappa light chains in urine suggest what disease

multiple myeloma

26

what are Schuffer dots and what genus and species of pathogen do they indicate

multiple, scattered brick-red dots;
Schuffer dots are found in erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium vivax or ovale

27

which plasmodium species can cause relapse?
which of these is found in the Western hemisphere?

vivax and ovale;
vivax is found in the Western hemisphere

28

in a patient for whom Auer rods are seen on blood smear, what treatment should be given

ATRA (all trans retinoic acid) to treat APML (AML type M3)

29

if a patient present with an ovarian mass and on blood smear you observe many small lymphocytes with interspersed macrophages surrounded by clear spaces what oncogene is involved in the patient's cancer

c-myc;

the smear described is the characteristic "starry sky" appearance of Burkitt lymphoma

30

what are Heinz bodies made of

oxidized and denatured hemoglobin

31

what's the mnemonic for DiGeorge syndrome

CATCH-22: cardiac abnormalities, abnormal facies (low set ears and shortened philtrum), thymic aplasia, clef palate, hypocalcemia (due to absent parathyroid glands)
deletion on chromosome 22

32

in a patient with psoriasis who has recently traveled to South America, what antimalarial would you use to treat

atovaquone-proguanil (not chloroquine because the patient came from a known resistant area and chloroquine exacerbates psoriasis symptoms)

33

what does fibronectin do

fibronectin is a serum protein that acts as an opsonin for phagocytes in blood clots