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Flashcards in UWorld-Rapid Review Deck (40):

ptosis, weakness of face muscles (i.e. mastication, EOMs), diplopia that worsens with use suggests what condition and what associated neoplasm

myasthenia gravis;


shortened 4th and 5th digits; short stature; round face

pseudohypoparathyroidism (end-organ resistance to PTH, TSH, LH/FSH) aka Albright hereditary osteodystrophy


stained red by safranin-O

collagen, mast cell granules, or mucin


adult structure that runs through inguinal canal (in man, in woman) and its embryologic derivative

spermatic cord in men (note: processus vaginalis disappears); round ligament in women
both are derived from gubernaculum (note: ovarian ligament also derives from gubernaculum, but doesn't run through inguinal canal)


expected pH, pCO2 and pO2 for pulmonary embolism

respiratory alkalosis (hyperventilation due to V/Q mismatch driven hypoxemia)=> high pH, low pCO2, low O2


brown colored patches/spots, flesh-colored papules, intertriginous freckling

Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's) chromosome 17


antibiotic for which histamine release increases proportional to infusion rate

vancomycin (Red man syndrome)


heavy menses, pelvic pressure/pain, palpable pelvic mass in an African American woman



pain passing stools, bloody in stool, Hx of vascular or heart disease (diminished pulses, past MI)

ischemic colitis:
on histology= mucosal hemorrhage and patchy necrosis


fasting hypoglycemia and hypoketonemia

Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or another defect in beta-oxidation pathway


how many ATP produced per: NADH, FADH2, GTP

3 ATP per NADH, 2 ATP per FADH2, 1 ATP per GTP


how much net ATP produced in anaerobic (glycolysis) vs. aerobic metabolism

net 2 ATP produced in glycolysis;
net 38 ATP produced in anerobic metabolism


leukoplakia vs. lichen sclerosis

leukoplakia= white thickening of mucosal surfaces (i.e. oral) often due to EBV
lichen sclerosis= white thinning of squamous surfaces (i.e. labia majora or perineal skin) due to autoimmune disease (anti-ECM1)


is acute tubular necrosis typically in the cortex or the medulla of the kidney

medulla: less blood supply than cortex so more prone to ischemia


atrophy of villi in the small bowel on histology

Celiac's (check for dermatitis herpetiformis)


notable toxicities of TCA's

QRS prolongation and arrhythmia, anticholinergic effects, agitation, seizure, coma


sudden onset back pain, hematuria, oliguria and metabolic acidosis

ethylene glycol:
-causes anion gap metabolic acidosis
-causes calcium oxalate stones (along with Chron's and vitamin C)


sickle cell patient develops sepsis: what's the microbe

most likely streptococcus (strep pneumo)


recurrent lobar hemorrhages in an elderly patient

cerebral amyloid angiopathy (beta-amyloid deposition in cerebral arterial walls, not associated with systemic amyloidosis)


a patient presenting with diabetes mellitus, necrolytic erythema and anemia likely has what condition



air in the biliary tree suggests what condition/complication

gallstone ileus; fistula formation between gallbladder and intestines allows stone to enter small intestines and get lodged in the ileocecal valve


persistent disseminated mycobacterial and fungal infections suggest what immunologic defect

low IFN-gamma, needed to promote macrophage destruction of mycobacteria/fungi;
IL-12 receptor deficiency


periodic, non-peristaltic contractions of the esophagus leading to crampy pain that resembles angina pectoris

diffuse esophageal spasm


moldy grains can have what carcinogen and what associated cancer risk

aspergillus aflatoxins => HCC


a patient treated for leukemia or lymphoma develops symptoms of renal failure (high BUN or Cr): what's the problem and how could it have been prevented

tumor lysis syndrome; prevent with allopurinol/febuxostat or with rasburicase (turns uric acid into allantoin)


a patient with lung cancer starts developing ataxia: explain the etiology

paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration: anti-Yo, anti-P/Q, and anti-Hu antibodies to the tumor cross-react with Purkinje cells in the cerebellum leading to degeneration


necrolytic erythema in the groin, abdominal pain, cheilosis, stomatitis can be the result of what condition



how can you differentiate partial central DI from complete central DI?

osmolarity increase of >10% after ADH= partial
osmolarity increase of >50% after ADH=complete


what does danazol treat (2 things)

danazol=synthetic androgen that treats endometriosis and hereditary angioedema


patient complains of fatigue, mild weight gain and has elevated creatinine kinase; what's the next appropriate step in his care?

hypothyroid myopathy
-check serum TSH


antiphospholipase A2 antibodies are associated with what renal condition

membranous glomerulonephropathy


if you give your patient acyclovir, what side effect must you act to prevent

with acyclovir: hydrate your patient! acyclovir has a side effect of crystalline nephropathy and acute renal failure


mother has a rash that starts at the head and moves down as well as arthralgia and postauricular LAD; what will baby present with

this is rubella:
fetal classic triad= PDA, cataracts, sensorineural deafness
(may also see blueberry muffin rash similar to CMV)


which two infections in the mother can cause hydrops fetalis

parvovirus B19 and syphilis


your patient has achalasia and you suspect it has been caused by infection; what pathogen do you suspect and what would you treat with if the infection was ongoing

Trypanosoma cruzi;
treat with benznidazole or nifurtimox


what are p bodies and what do they do

p bodies are proteins found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that regulate translation by binding mRNA and storing them to release later


what is the function of HER-2

HER-2 is an epidermal growth factor receptor that has intrinsic tyrosine kinase and it promotes epidermal cell proliferation and differentiation


patients with adult-type coarctation are at increased risk of having what other condition

congenital berry aneurysms


what's the difference between scalded skin syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis

in scalded skin syndrome attachments between keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum are destroyed; in toxic epidermal necrolysis the epidermis-dermis junction is destroyed


what characteristic should a drug that is hepatically cleared have

high lipophilicity so it can be absorbed by the hepatocytes (in the kidney it would filter out and get reabsorbed right back so this would be unfavorable for kidney clearance)