Kaplan-FULL LENGTH EXAM!!! Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Kaplan-FULL LENGTH EXAM!!! Deck (18):
1

what is the quick rule of thumb for determining how long it will take for a drug to reach 87.5% of steady state if given via continuous infusion

rule of thumb: continuous infusion of a drug will cause it to reach 50% of steady state after one half-life, 75% of steady state after two half-lives, 87.5% of steady state after three half-lives

2

how do you calculate filtration fraction

FF= GFR/RPF

3

what are the side effects of sulfalazine

anorexia, headache, nausea, irreversible oligospermia, hypersensitivity rxns, Steven-Johnson syndrome, exfolative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis

4

organophosphates (found in pesticies) have what mechanism of action and how is exposure to organophosphates treated

ACh esterase inhibitors;
treated with pralidoxime

5

what is the alveolar ventilation equation

PACO2=production of CO2/ alveolar ventilation

6

Rosenthal fibers (eosinophilic corkscrew fibers) and a cyst with a nodule in the cerebellum is characteristic of what neural neoplasm

pilocytic astrocytoma

7

what uniquely characterizes each of the Tanner stages in women

1: elevation of the papilla of the breast
2: enlargement of areola, coarsening of pubic hair
3: axillary hair grows in, peak height increase, acne
4: areola forms secondary mound on breast
5: adult breast contour; full pubic hair spread to medial thigh

8

what is the alveolar gas equation

PAO2=PIO2 - PACO2/R

9

which AChE inhibitors are used to treat myasthenia gravis

pyridostigmine and neostigmine

10

what drugs can cause acute pancreatitis

sulfa drugs, thiazides, valproic acid, steroids

11

what does the thoracic duct empty into

into the junction of the left internal jugular vein and left subclavian vein

12

how would you treat gastroparesis resulting from diabetic autonomic neuropathy or peripheral neuropathy

metoclopramide

13

what is the antidote for cyanide poisoning (detectable via bitter almond breath) and how does it work

amyl nitrite;
amyl nitrite generates methemoglobin which binds cyanide

14

what are the two ways that RBF and GFR are autoregulated in order to keep them constant between pressures of 80-180mmHg

1. myogenic response: increase blood pressure triggers contraction of smooth muscle and decreased blood pressure triggers relaxation
2. macula densa causes vasoconstriction in response to increased BP and stops vasoconstricting effects in response to low BP

15

a herniated disc compressing L5 would cause what symptoms

inability to extend the toe, inability to dorsiflex the foot (foot drop), loss of sensation over dorsum of the foot

16

which anatomic structure lies directly posterior to the manubrium

the left brachiocephalic vein

17

what is Chvostek's sign and how would acute pancreatitis cause this sign to be able to be elicited

Chvostek's sign= tapping on the face near the maxilla causes ipsilateral facial twitching; sign of hypocalcemia

pancreatitis causes hypocalcemia via saponification with fatty acids

18

what are the surface markers used to identify natural killer cells

CD16 and CD56