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Flashcards in UWorld-Neuro Deck (20)
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what are the inheritance pattern, etiology and symptoms of ataxia telangiectasia

ataxia telangiectasia is autosomal recessive disease caused by faulty nonhomologous end joining;
ataxia telangiectasia is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, oculocutaneous telangiectasias, repeated sinopulmonary infections and increased malignancy


a patient with dilated pupils, piloerection, nausea, abdominal pain, muscle cramping, and yawning is likely suffering from what drug-related effect

heroin withdrawl


a patient with hypersomnolence, malaise, severe psychological cravings and depression/suicidality is likely suffering from what kind of withdrawl

cocaine (similar to amphetamines)


what two toxins found in sea creatures bind to Na+ channels and inhibit action potentials

tetrodotoxin (in pufferfish, Japanese delicacy)
saxitotoxin (in dinoflagellates)


what two toxins found in sea creatures bind to Na+ channels and prevent their inactivation leading to persistent depolarization

ciguatoxin (in Moray eel)
batrachotoxin (in South American frog)


what is the embryologic abnormality that leads to Hirschsprung's disease

failure of neural crest cells to migrate to the intestinal wall leads to absence of myenteric and submucosal nervous plexi in intestines


what kinds of defects occur when the posterior neural tube fails to close

spina bifida occulta, meningocele, myelomeningocele


what is the genetic abnormality of Fragile X syndrome

CGG trinucleotide repeat in the FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation1 gene) that becomes greater than 200 repeats will cause hypermethylation and thereby silencing of the gene -->symptoms
(people with less than 200 repeats have "premutation" and are asymptomatic)


what's the function of glycine in the brain

co-agonist with glutamate for NMDA receptors


how does ketamine help decrease morphine tolerance

blocking these NMDA-mediated processes:
-phosphorylation of opioid receptors
-increased adenylyl cyclase
-increases in nitric oxide


what lesion would cause a left homonomous superior quadrantanopia (pie in the sky) and which lobe is it located in

lesion of the right Meyer's loop (found in the temporal lobe)


what would be the difference in terms of visual field deficits between a partial retinal, optic nerve or optic disc lesion and a lesion of the lateral portion of the optic chiasm (i.e. due to atherosclerosis or calcification of the internal carotids)

a partial lesion of the retina/ optic disc/ optic nerve would cause a central scotoma in one eye (not a fully diminished half of visual field of one eye), while a lesion of the lateral part of one side of the optic chiasm would cause a monocular nasal hemianopia


name the common symptoms of Freidreich ataxia

1. ataxia (cerebellar and dorsal column lesions)
2. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
3. kyphoscoliosis, pes cavus, hammertoes
3. 10% of patients get diabetes mellitus


name the 4 epilepsy drugs that can cause Steven-Johnson Syndrome

lamotrigine, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and ethosuximide


what is rachischisis

failure of the neural tube to close rostrally (at 4th week) leads to failure of the vertebrae to close around the spinal cord --> motor and sensory deficits, recurrent infections
often occurs with anencephaly


conversion disorder vs. somatization

conversion disorder: sudden loss of sensation or muscle function occurring after a significant stressor

somatization: complaints of pain/ dysfunction of at least four varieties (two GI, one sexual, one pseudoneurologic), persisting for years and beginning before age 30

both are involuntary, but involve no apparent physical cause


patients with what immune deficiency tend to get recurrent Neisseria infections

membrane attack complex (C5b-C9)


Menetriere's vs. Meniere's disease

Menetiere's: gastric hypertrophy of the stomach with increased parietal cells and mucous cells as well as protein loss

Meniere's: increased endolymph due to malabsorption--> triad of tinnitus, vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss


are all the cranial nerves covered by schwann cells

no, CN2 is covered by oligodendrocytes


which vitamin deficiency mimics Freidrich's ataxia and why

vitamin E: both involve posterior column and spinocerebellar tract demyelination as well as ataxia and dysarthria