Vasectomy, Epididectomy, Urolithiasis, Castration, Male Urogenital Sx (Sx Lab) Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Large Animal Surgery > Vasectomy, Epididectomy, Urolithiasis, Castration, Male Urogenital Sx (Sx Lab) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vasectomy, Epididectomy, Urolithiasis, Castration, Male Urogenital Sx (Sx Lab) Deck (70):
1

Where is the scrotal ligament?

From the parietal tunic to the scrotum​

2

What are some of the complications of using a burdizzo for castration?

Q image thumb

scrotal sloughing, slips, clamping of the penis

3

T/F: Post castration, horses should be isolated from mares for 2 days

True

may still be some live sperm

A image thumb
4

(Select the correct option) Incision of the corpus cavernosum penis during castration:

  • Requires surgical reapposition of the tunic to avoid further complications
  • Is of little consequence and can be left to heal by second intention
  • Is a frequent complication of castration
  • Requires immediate penile amputation
  • b and c

Requires surgical reapposition of the tunic to avoid further complications​

5

Where is the ligament of the tail of the epididymis?

From the middle of the tail to the parietal tunic​

6

Between a high penectomy and a low penectomy, which has more risk of fecal contamination?

high penectomy

A image thumb
7

How many times should you ligate the pampiniform plexus?

once

double ligation increases risk of infection

A image thumb
8

In steers, where does urolithiasis/obstruction most commonly occur?

distal sigmoid flexure

A image thumb
9

What's that?

Q image thumb

Burdizzo emasculatome

Used for blunt castration (as opposed to surgical)

10

To begin a vasectomy, a 1 inch long incision is made just beside the median raphe, halfway between the __________ and the __________

Q image thumb

To begin a vasectomy, a 1 inch long incision is made just beside the median raphe, halfway between the inguinal ring and the testicle

11

Castrated horses may still be fertile for up to ___________

three weeks

12

What are the major problems associated with cryptorchidism?

reduced sperm production, aggressive behavior

13

Removal of a segment of the ductus [vas] deferens is termed:

vasectomy

14

________ cells nourish spermatozoa

Sertoli

15

Is it more common to have left or right cryptorchids?

equal incidence

16

At birth, where are the testis of the foal located?

inguinal canal

17

What is responsible for descent of the testis?

The gubernaculum shortens during gestation and pulls the retro parietal testes into the scrotum​

18

Congenital unilateral absence of testis is termed:

monorchidism

19

What type of testicular retention is most common?

left-sided abdominal retention

20

T/F: Horses should be on strict stall rest with no exercise for two days after cryptorchid surgery.

False

Stall rest for one day; forced exercise twice daily!

21

(Select the correct option) Schirrous cord

  • Refers to chronic, low-grade staphylococcal infection that results in formation of abscesses and fibrous tissue
  • Warrants euthanasia because of the poor prognosis
  • Can occur months to years after castration
  • Is caused by a clostridial infection of the scrotal wound
  • a and c

a and c​

  • Refers to chronic, low-grade staphylococcal infection that results in formation of abscesses and fibrous tissue
  • Can occur months to years after castration

22

If you have a pulsing stream of hemorrhage what vessel did you f*** up?

Q image thumb

testicular artery

23

What are the two types of cryptorchidectomy? Which one is most common?

  • Standing (laparoscopy)
  • GA dorsal recumbency (most common)

24

Where is the proper ligament of the testis?

From the caudal testis to the epididymal tail

25

(Select the correct option) If one of the testes cannot be located during routine castration,

  • The horse is a monorchid
  • Ventral midline laparotomy should be done immediately to locate the intraabdominal testis
  • The descended testis should be removed, and the horse should be referred to a surgical facility for removal of the retained testis
  • Neither testis should be removed, and the horse should be referred or scheduled for cryptorchid castration
  • A and C

Neither testis should be removed, and the horse should be referred or scheduled for cryptorchid castration​

26

Identify this instrument.

Q image thumb

White emasculator

27

In animals with urethral rupture, the accumulation of urine in the tissue may cause an inflammatory response that may result in:

sloughing of the skin of the ventral abdomen

To facilitate drainage longitudinal incision can be made on the ventral abdomen

A image thumb
28

Cryptorchidism is defined as an anomaly of testicular position. What are some other names for cryptorchid foals?

“Rig, ridgling, original, high flanker”

29

(Select the correct option) Excessive hemorrhage during castration:

  • Usually originates from the vascular spermatic cord and may result from improper or inadequate emasculation of the vascular structures
  • Predisposes the horse to eventration
  • Is rarely life-threatening and requires no additional therapy
  • Should be addressed by reapplication of the emasculator or placement of a clamp or ligature
  • a and d

a and d

  • Usually originates from the vascular spermatic cord and may result from improper or inadequate emasculation of the vascular structures
  • Should be addressed by reapplication of the emasculator or placement of a clamp or ligature

30

At what age are horses usually castrated?

1 - 1.5 years

31

During surgery, the key to finding the testis is finding the __________

gubernaculum

32

What is scirrhous cord formation?

Septic funiculitis - Infection often caused by Streptococcus spp.

A image thumb
33

Fluid-filled, painless swelling from the vaginal tunic describes a __________

hydrocoele​

This can be treated by draining, removing the vaginal tunic surgically, or cauterizing the vaginal tunic chemically

34

If you have an intraabdominal bleed, what will indicate this problem?

pale mm, high pulse rate

35

Removal of the tail of the epididymis is termed:

epididymectomy

36

Identify this instrument.

Q image thumb

Modified White emasculator

37

T/F: After the testes arrive in the scrotum, external ring diameter decreases

True

A image thumb
38

What is the difference between the closed and open castration technique?

  • Closed: Vaginal tunic stays intact; doesn’t open the abdominal cavity
  • Open: Opens the vaginal tunic; opens the abdominal cavity

39

At what age are farm animals usually castrated?

10-14 days

40

In males horses, the preferred surgical approach for removal of proximal urethral calculi is:

perineal urethrostomy

41

Why are farm animals usually castrated at a young age (10-14 days)?

fewer complications, less pain, better flavored meat

42

In abdominal cryptorchids, is left or right more common?

left

43

After releasing the pedicle back into the scrotum, you should stretch the incision manually. Why?

Q image thumb

Allows for adequate drainage

44

Identify this instrument.

Q image thumb

plain emasculator

1 crushing surface, 1 cutting surface

45

(Select the correct option) Postcastration edema:

  • Is rare
  • Is common, usually self-limiting, and resolves with adequate exercise and drainage
  • Is a life-threatening complication that necessitates administration of systemic antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents
  • Frequently results in peritonitis
  • c and d

Is common, usually self-limiting, and resolves with adequate exercise and drainage​

46

What are the uses for the burdizzo?

Q image thumb

teat amputation, tail docking, bloodless castration

47

The urethra is surrounded by __________

Q image thumb

corpus spongiosum

48

Approximately when do the testes of the foal lie in the scrotum?

1-2 weeks

49

In inguinal cryptorchids, is left or right more common?

right

50

(Select the correct option) Postcastration peritonitis

  • Is considered septic when nucleated cell counts of the abdominal fluid exceed 10,000 cells/μL
  • Is more likely to result from the open technique of castration
  • Is usually inflammatory and self-limiting, but sepsis should be suspected if degenerative neutrophils and phagocytized bacteria are evident on cytologic studies
  • Does not occur because the vaginal tunic does not communicate with the abdomen
  • a and b

Is usually inflammatory and self-limiting, but sepsis should be suspected if degenerative neutrophils and phagocytized bacteria are evident on cytologic studies​

51

(Select the correct option) Postcastration eventration:

  • Only occurs after use of the open technique of castration
  • Can occur up to 6 days after castration
  • Is usually self-limiting and reduces spontaneously
  • Is more likely to occur in Arabians and other high- strung breeds
  • c and d

Can occur up to 6 days after castration​

52

(Select the correct option) Prolapse of omentum from the scrotal wound

  • Warrants euthanasia because of the poor prognosis
  • Should be corrected by transrectal palpation and steady traction on the abdominal portion of the omentum
  • Can be managed by emasculation of the prolapsed tissue in simple cases bur may require surgical correction through an inguinal approach
  • Can occur months ro years after castration
  • a and d

Can be managed by emasculation of the prolapsed tissue in simple cases bur may require surgical correction through an inguinal approach​

53

What is the rule for how long to keep the emasculator on?

~1 minute per year of age

54

What are some etiologies for cryptorchidism?

  • Improper function of gubernaculum
  • Inguinal ring too small in diameter
  • Hormone imbalance (estrogen shortage?)
  • Hereditary? (linked to sex chromosomes?)

55

What are the types of cryptorchidism?

Abdominal, incomplete abdominal, inguinal​

A image thumb
56

T/F: Spermatozoa are produced in the testis

True

A image thumb
57

(Select the correct option) Persistent masculine behavior after castration

  • Results from failure to remove the epididymis during castration
  • Can result from failure to remove testicular tissue during castration of a cryptorchid animal
  • Does not occur
  • Can be con trolled with administration of benztropine mesylate.

Can result from failure to remove testicular tissue during castration of a cryptorchid animal​

58

T/F: Vasectomy and epididymectomy is performed as the main or supplemental method of producing teaser animals

True

A image thumb
59

Identify this instrument.

Q image thumb

Serra emasculator

60

(Select the correct option) Hydrocele is

  • A common complication of the closed technique of castration
  • A result of infection of the spermatic cord
  • The accumulation of serous fluid within the vaginal cavity
  • More common following the open technique of castration
  • c and d

c and d​

  • The accumulation of serous fluid within the vaginal cavity
  • More common following the open technique of castration

61

Identify this instrument.

Q image thumb

Hausmann emasculator

62

Identify this instrument.

Q image thumb

Reimer emasculator

2 crushing surfaces, 1 cutting surface

63

Sertoli cells and Leydig cells are found in the __________

epididymis

64

What are the three main structures of the gubernaculum?

  • Proper ligament of the testis
  • Ligament of the tail of the epididymis
  • Scrotal ligament

A image thumb
65

This medication should be given to all horses post-castration:

phenylbutazone

66

Most common complication of castration in horses:

excessive hemorrhage

67

It’s imperative that horses are current on this vaccination at the time of castration:

tetanus toxoid vaccination​

68

Incision site for equine castration:

scrotal

69

The formation of this is said to be more likely after an open castration:

hydrocele

70

You’ve just completed a castration procedure and a short time after the horse is standing, he begins hemorrhaging excessively. Packing the castration site hasn’t resolved the issue. You call the client and recommend:

re-anesthetize to find and ligate the hemorrhaging vessel