W19-L2: Cells of the CNS Flashcards Preview

Matt's Block 06 - Neuro block > W19-L2: Cells of the CNS > Flashcards

Flashcards in W19-L2: Cells of the CNS Deck (28):
1

How many layers of neurones are there in the cortex?

6

2

What is the cortex?

Thin 1 cm layer of cell bodies that is the outermost layer of the brain

3

What stains can you use for neurones

H & E and Silver stain (golgi stain)

4

What are ependymal cells?

Low columnar or cuboidal cells that line the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricle within the brain.

5

How is CSF flow aided?

cilia on apical surface of ependymal cells

6

What is the difference between ependymal cells and epithelial cells?

ependymal cells have non basal laminar

7

How are neurones different from other cells?

-Neurons are specialized for signalling (Morphologically distinct, Electrically active, Rapid communication, Long distance)
-High level of protein synthesis
-Metabolically limited
-Terminally differentiated

8

Regulation of neuronal morphology

Via the cytoskeleton

9

Actin's role in neuronal cytoskeleton

Dynamic assembly/disassembly allows shape changes and movement (e.g spines and growth cones)

10

Intermediate filament's role in neuronal cytoskeleton

-In all processes
-permanent

11

Microtubule's role in neuronal cytoskeleton

-Dynamic
-Composed of tubulin
-Axon transport

12

How are high levels of protein production seen?

large pale nucleus, Nissl bodies (rough ER, free ribosomes)

13

Most important function of astrocytes

Neurotransmitter uptake and degradation especially glutamate and GABA

14

Other passive support functions of astrocytes

-K+ homeostasis (remove excess K+)
-neuronal energy supply
-maintenance of BBB
-injury response and recovery

15

Active functions of astrocytes

-Modulation of neuronal function (via Ca2+)
-Modulation of blood flow

16

What is caused by inhibition of glial glutamate transporters?

cells are more depolarized, extended depolarisation can cause cell death

17

How are glia excited?

Ca2+

18

Causes of glial excitement

-neurotransmitters such
as ATP, glutamate
-Trauma
-Spontaneous
-Inflammatory mediators

19

Mechanism of glia commuication

Glial cells contain synaptic vesicles and show exocytosis.

20

regulation of neuronal function by astrocytes

-Neurons are inhibited by calcium wave (hyperpolarised)
-Mechanism involves release of ATP from glia which causes Ca2+

21

How do Astrocytes regulate vascular tone?

Calcium wave initiated within an astrocyte causes vasoconstriction or vasodilation.

22

Difference between oligodendrocytes and schwann cells

Schwann is in the PNS, Oligodendrocyte is CNS and schwann only does one axon compared to many

23

Microglia

-local defence cells from bone marrow
-5-20% of cells in mouse brain
-Resemble macrophages – phagocytic

24

Role of microglia

-Constantly survey the CNS. (function in normal healthy tissue)
-Change rapidly in response to inflammation or
injury- upregulate cytokines/growth factors

25

Structure of peripheral nerves

-One or more bundles (fascicles) or nerve fibres with epineurium, endoneurium and perineurium


26

perineurium

collagenous tissue that surrounds fascicles of nerve fibres

27

epineurium

If there is more than one fascicle, than there is further layer of collagenous tissue

28

endoneurium

Within each fascicles, each nerve fibre and Schwann cell is surrounded by loose vascular supporting tissue called endoneurium

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