W4RUSS Flashcards Preview

Russian Art and Architecture > W4RUSS > Flashcards

Flashcards in W4RUSS Deck (23):
1

mosaics

define:

Masters of this:

Step:

Place:

an image made by the combining of thousands of fragments of opaque glasses

smaltose - fragments of opaque glass

Byzantine = master of mosaic technique for religious art

smaltose placed on plaster ground or base

St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev

2

frescoes

Define:

Steps:

What is one medium used:

How long:

Place:

paint applied to damp plaster

Step:

1. first level of ground

2. application of plaster

3. outline by charcoal

4. painted on plaster with tempura

tempera - colors made with egg as binder

over period of one summer

Mirozhsky Monastery in Pskov

3

lamentation

Christ was taken down from cross and Mary is holding Him weeping

4

Epiphany

baptism of Christ

traditional def - sudden startling revelation

5

Transfiguration

Christ is enveloped by light, and God says that this is my son

6

Icon

Come from:

Why does it darken over time:

Greek word eikon

the linseed oil in the painting absorded the smoke of the candles of the church

7

Steps of Making an Icon

1. Preparation of the Boards

2. With chisel work, depress the main surface of the icoin

3. in the depression, apply gesso (chalk like mixture with binder)

4. master or apprentice takes stylus and lightly outline the basic pattern

5. application of tempera paint (build up color range - from dark to light)

6. master does the face

7. Fix it with linseed oil

Bonus for Richer: assiste - apply gold leaf (with wolf's fang)

8

Vladimir Mother of God

Where was it painted:

Why was it called this:

What type of icon was it:

painted in Constantinople

called this because Andrei Bogolyubsky sacked Kiev and took this icon to his capital at Vladimir

tenderness icon - faces touching

 

9

Vladimir Mother of God

Where is it now:

How did it get there:

Moscow

Moscow was going to be invaded by Tamerlane, Moscow went to Vladimir because they needed a icon to use as a battle standard to lead troops (because Mother of God protected Russia - the Intercession)

Tamerlane's army turned around

10

How were Saints, church fathers, Christ and Mary portrayed?

in familiar human form, but in a very stylized manner that would immediately impress upon the beholder that the object portrayed is not an ordinary mortal

11

Iconoclasm

726

people who debunked the veneration of icons claiming it was idolatry

12

What force played in the rise of Iconoclasm?

rise of Islam

they were very clear that there shall be no human likeness in religious art

13

When was creation and veneration of icons forbidden?

By who?

726

Byzantine Emperor Leo III

 

14

When was icon veneration sanctioned again?

787 - at the second council of Nicea

 

not enough because of Caesaropapism

 

not until 843, another emperor proclaimed restored veneration to icons

15

When did the Slavs accept Christianity?

988

16

What did the icons provide?

a conduit from daily life to spiritual power

the icon humanized divine authority - represented God's participation into human affairs

17

Hodegetria

one who shows the way

Mary's hand shows the way to Christ

18

Center of Icon painting in Russia

Why?

Novgorod

the Mongols did not attack Novgorod because of negotiation by Alexander Nevsky

19

Why did painting go beyond precise figuration?

appearance of a competitor - photography

20

Mandylion

What does it mean?

Legend?

His eyes and hair?

What is it often used for?

means mantle - a cloth

legend - king who sends his servant to Christ; tells Christ, my master is ill, can you come and cure him; Christ responds that he has too much to do, but takes takes a cloth and places it to his face; the face is imprinted on face; servant takes cloth to master; master is cured

looking askance, sees something that you can't

hair is divine - gold leaf - assiste; his hair parts in three ways - Trinity

often used as battle standard

21

St. George - late 14th century

pulsating red background

represents the intensity of the force - he spills out the fram

gorki - little hills; represends landscape

on top right - hand of God with fingers in sign of blessing

22

St. George - early 15th century

spearing dragon from behind

also has the hand of God in corner

23

Elijah

red background

making sign of blessing

holding rotulus (scroll) - signifies his plae in one of the primary books of the Old Testament

wearing talith (Jewish scarf) - represents his place as an author in the Jewish Bible