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1

3 classifications of motor skills

Classification 1: movement precision
Classification 2: Nature of movement organization
Classification 3: Environmental Predictability

2

Free throw shot

closed/discrete/gross

3

Sign language

closed/serial/fine

4

Brushing teeth

closed/discrete/fine

5

Dribbling in soccer (game situation)

open/continuous/gross

6

Using a fork to eat

closed/discrete/fine & gross?

7

Performing soft tissue mobilization

closed/serial/gross & fine?

8

Walking down stairs on crutches

closed/serial/gross

9

Walking through a parking lot on crutches

open/continuous/gross

10

Motor development

--> growth
-Motor skill changes across the lifespan
-Knowledge of this areas influences how we approach optimal growth, preservation of motor skill, and recovery after injury or disease

11

Motor Control

--> Physiological
-AKA neuromuscular control
-The function of systems that execute and monitor movements

12

Motor Learning

--> Behavioral
-Emphasizes brain's role in acquiring, planning, initiating, and modifying movement skills

13

Name 5 classifications of Motor Skills

1. Goal-oriented
2. Body and/or limb movements are required to accomplish the goal
3. Voluntary
4. Developed as a result of practice
5. May be learned, recalled, relearned, and modified

14

What is learning

a relatively permanent change in a person's capability to execute a motor skills as a result of practice or experience

15

What 3 elements interact for a movement to occur?

Task, person, environment

16

What four descriptors make up the "person"

1) personal characteristics: age, experience
2) cognition : motivation, memory, attention, emotion
3) anatomy: anthropometrics, muscle/ joint function
4) perception: sensory processing

17

What are 4 examples for defining abilities:

1) inherited traits
2) stable and enduring
3) few in number
4) underlie performance of many skills; ie they must be in place to become highly skillful

18

What are 4 examples define skills:

1) developed w/ practice (learned)
2) modifiable
3) many in number
4) depend on diff. subsets ( person, task, EN)

19

What is neuroplascticity?

significant cortical reorganization after CNS lesions

20

What type of changes are present with immobilization of the ankle in the primary motor cortex (M1)

excitability changes

21

What two events occur after chronic ACL injury?

corticomotor excitability diminished in M1 and physiological reorganization

22

Are increases in cortical excitability greater or lesser later in the day than in a.m.?

Greater

23

Plasticity protocols applied repeatedly at short intervals _______ plastic change?

increase

24

True or false: Individuals who are sedentary have greater capacity for plastic change and enhanced learned/memory than active people.

False : Individuals who regularly engage in aerobic activity have greater capacity for plastic change and enhanced learned/memory than sedentary

25

Individuals under ______ years of age show a greater magnitude of plasticity.

26

How is an individual's genetic profiles important to neuroplasticity?

Neurotrophins: brain-derived neurotrophic factor aka BDNF contribute to altering brain connectivity.

-(large % of population has polymorphhism in BDNF gene that reduces capacity for plastic change)

27

What is the greatest modality to promote beneficial neuroplastic change with movement dysfunction is ________________?

physical activity

28

A physical therapist will determine the ________, __________, ___________, and _______________ to plan rehabilitation to achieve optimal motor performance.

means
environment
dosage
cognitive factors

29

Provide two reasons for why there are 1 or 2 dimensional taxonomies to classify motor tasks:

1) divisions based on similar skill characteristics
2) represent a continuum between 2 extremes.

30

Name the two categories of movement precision (classification 1):

1) gross motor
2) fine motor

31

What is considered gross motor?

Usually multi-limb movement; large muscles activated. Less emphasis on precision

32

What is considered fine motor?

Involves precise movement with smaller muscles

33

On a scale of 1-4 (1 being fine motor and 4 being gross) rank the following activities: Kicking a soccer ball, walking w/ crutches, making a surgical incision, and picking up a paperclip

1) surgical incision
2) picking up a paper clip
3) kicking a soccer ball
4) walking w/ crutches

34

What are the 3 skill types for the Nature of Movement Organization (classification 2)

1) Discrete skill
2) Continuous skill
3) Serial skill

35

When a single execution completes task =

discrete skill

36

When the beginning and ending are well defined =

discrete skill

37

Typically rhythmic or repetitive in nature =

continuous skill

38

When the beginning and end are arbitrary or environmentally defined (i.e. externally paced) =

continuous skill

39

Requires series of movements to complete task =

serial skill

40

Collective sequence of discrete skills =

serial skill

41

Name 3 characteristics of discrete skills:

1) distinct beginning and end
2) short duration
3) movement prepared in advance

42

Name 3 characteristics of serial skills:

1) discrete actions linked together
2) order is important; longer movement time ; practice in parts
3) some prepared in advance, others adjusted during

43

Name 3 characteristics of continuous skills:

1) repetitive and rhythmic with arbitrary beginning and end
2) longer time span determined by goal or person
3) ongoing movement adjustments

44

Golf swing is categorized as:

discrete

45

Transferring from a wheelchair to bed is categorized as:

serial

46

Walking with an assistive device is categorized as:

serial / continuous

47

Cross-country is categorized as:

continuous

48

Pedaling a stationary bicycle is categorized as:

continuous

49

Striking a match is categorized as:

discrete

50

What are the 3 skill types for Environmental Predictability (classification 3)

1) Closed Skill
2) Open skill

51

High level of predictability =

closed skill

52

environmental context features are stationary =

closed skill

53

Consistency and refinement are the objectives of:

closed skill

54

Variable and unpredictable =

open skill

55

Supporting surfaces, objects, and/or other people are in motion during skill performance =

open skill

56

Adaptability is the key objective =

open skill

57

The stability of the environment may impact the learner differently depending on _____________________.

The stage of learning

58

During _____ learning, a ______ environment may be beneficial, requires fewer demands on information processing systems

early learning a closed EN

59

With _________ learning, ______ EN may be better as it provides greater variability for greater diversification of skill performance.

advance learning, open EN

60

Gentile's two-dimensional taxonomy combines ______________________ and _____________________.

movement precision and environmental stability.

61

Stationary is to _____ skill as in motion is to -_____ skill.

closed skill
open skill

62

What are the two sub-classifications of body stability and mobile body?

no object manipulation and object manipulation

63

Relatively permanent change in capability to perform a skill as a result of practice or experience that is inferred is ______.

learning

64

The observable and measurable outcome of executing a motor skill is:

Performance

65

True or false: Performances are measured.

True

66

Performance is highly variable and specific to a ____ and _____.

Time and place

67

What are 4 ways by which we can infer that learning has occurred?

1) Persistent improvement
2) Better consistency - whats one way to measure this?
3) Stability of performance - performance is stable even with disruptions
4) Adaptability - can apply learned skills in differenct contexts

68

What concept do both models for learning assume?

That learning starts cognitively and progresses towards automatic movements.

69

Which model for learning emphasizes a description of motor skill performance form stage to stage?

Fitts and Posner 3 stage model

70

Which model for learning focuses on the learning process and instruction occurring during the stages?

Gentile 2-stage

71

What are the 3 stages of the Fitts and Posner model?

1) cognitive stage
2) associative stage
3) autonomous stage

72

Initial stage of motor skill training- "getting the idea", ie development of the basis movement pattern

cognitive stage (1 of 3)

73

During the cognitive stage (1 of 3) performance is __________________ with lack of consistency from one trial to next.

highly variable

74

In what stage are errors large in number and magnitude and learners are not completely aware of how to correct errors?

cognitive stage (1 of 3)

75

Improvement is often rapid (in cognitive stage 1 of 3) but, improvement in task knowledge likely exceeds _______________.

motor performance.

76

In the associative stage (2 of 3), a person has learned to associate specific environmental cues with ___________________________.

the movements required to achieve the goal of the skill

77

In the associative stage, performance is more _______ and less _________.

more consistent and less variable (errors are smaller and fewer)

78

During the associative stage it is important to try multiple strategies, but __________________________.

know which ones are good and which don't work

79

An individual in the associative stage can now identify ___________________________.

own performance errors

80

What is the most important feature in the autonomous stage (3 of 3)?

Attentional resources are now free to be placed on things other than the movement.

81

In the autonomous stage (3 of 3), an individual can do a the skill:

without thinking

82

In the autonomous stage (3 of 3), errors can be easily _________ and _________.

detected and corrected

83

What are 2 important goals of the initial stage (1 of 2)

1) Develop a movement coordination pattern that allows some degree of success
2) Discriminate b/n regulatory and non-regulatory conditions

84

A regulatory conditions includes:

how to determine how one must move (eg. size/shape of a cup, amount of liquid in a cup)

85

A non-regulatory condition:

eg. color of cup

86

Development of the basic movement patterns, learning rules or strategy and emphasis on figuring out the best movements are characteristics of which stage?

Initial (idea of movement) stage

87

Beginners explore a variety of _____________________.

movement possibilities

88

When learning, how to we achieve success?

Through trial and error

89

In the later stage (2 of 2) of Gentile's model, learners goals depend on ___________________.

the type of skill (open vs closed)

90

What two factors are involved in Gentile's later stage?

1) Fixation
2) Diversification

91

Working to develop capability to perform with little, if any, conscious effort is a characteristic of:

fixation

92

When a movement pattern becomes more refined with practice, is a characteristic of:

fixation

93

A closed skill requiring _______ of basic movement coordination learned during initial stage. Is part of what stage?

fixation
part of the later stage

94

When open skills require multiple strategies to complete a movement successfully, is a characteristic of:

diversification

95

When conditions may continually change is a characteristic of:

diversification

96

Having to be highly aware of regulatory conditions to be able to modify movement to a situation is a characteristic of:

diversification