Flashcards in Week 1 Lecture Deck (96):
3 classifications of motor skills
Classification 1: movement precision
Classification 2: Nature of movement organization
Classification 3: Environmental Predictability
Free throw shot
Dribbling in soccer (game situation)
Using a fork to eat
closed/discrete/fine & gross?
Performing soft tissue mobilization
closed/serial/gross & fine?
Walking down stairs on crutches
Walking through a parking lot on crutches
-Motor skill changes across the lifespan
-Knowledge of this areas influences how we approach optimal growth, preservation of motor skill, and recovery after injury or disease
-AKA neuromuscular control
-The function of systems that execute and monitor movements
-Emphasizes brain's role in acquiring, planning, initiating, and modifying movement skills
Name 5 classifications of Motor Skills
2. Body and/or limb movements are required to accomplish the goal
4. Developed as a result of practice
5. May be learned, recalled, relearned, and modified
What is learning
a relatively permanent change in a person's capability to execute a motor skills as a result of practice or experience
What 3 elements interact for a movement to occur?
Task, person, environment
What four descriptors make up the "person"
1) personal characteristics: age, experience
2) cognition : motivation, memory, attention, emotion
3) anatomy: anthropometrics, muscle/ joint function
4) perception: sensory processing
What are 4 examples for defining abilities:
1) inherited traits
2) stable and enduring
3) few in number
4) underlie performance of many skills; ie they must be in place to become highly skillful
What are 4 examples define skills:
1) developed w/ practice (learned)
3) many in number
4) depend on diff. subsets ( person, task, EN)
What is neuroplascticity?
significant cortical reorganization after CNS lesions
What type of changes are present with immobilization of the ankle in the primary motor cortex (M1)
What two events occur after chronic ACL injury?
corticomotor excitability diminished in M1 and physiological reorganization
Are increases in cortical excitability greater or lesser later in the day than in a.m.?
Plasticity protocols applied repeatedly at short intervals _______ plastic change?
True or false: Individuals who are sedentary have greater capacity for plastic change and enhanced learned/memory than active people.
False : Individuals who regularly engage in aerobic activity have greater capacity for plastic change and enhanced learned/memory than sedentary
Individuals under ______ years of age show a greater magnitude of plasticity.
How is an individual's genetic profiles important to neuroplasticity?
Neurotrophins: brain-derived neurotrophic factor aka BDNF contribute to altering brain connectivity.
-(large % of population has polymorphhism in BDNF gene that reduces capacity for plastic change)
What is the greatest modality to promote beneficial neuroplastic change with movement dysfunction is ________________?
A physical therapist will determine the ________, __________, ___________, and _______________ to plan rehabilitation to achieve optimal motor performance.
Provide two reasons for why there are 1 or 2 dimensional taxonomies to classify motor tasks:
1) divisions based on similar skill characteristics
2) represent a continuum between 2 extremes.
Name the two categories of movement precision (classification 1):
1) gross motor
2) fine motor
What is considered gross motor?
Usually multi-limb movement; large muscles activated. Less emphasis on precision
What is considered fine motor?
Involves precise movement with smaller muscles
On a scale of 1-4 (1 being fine motor and 4 being gross) rank the following activities: Kicking a soccer ball, walking w/ crutches, making a surgical incision, and picking up a paperclip
1) surgical incision
2) picking up a paper clip
3) kicking a soccer ball
4) walking w/ crutches
What are the 3 skill types for the Nature of Movement Organization (classification 2)
1) Discrete skill
2) Continuous skill
3) Serial skill
When a single execution completes task =
When the beginning and ending are well defined =
Typically rhythmic or repetitive in nature =
When the beginning and end are arbitrary or environmentally defined (i.e. externally paced) =
Requires series of movements to complete task =
Collective sequence of discrete skills =
Name 3 characteristics of discrete skills:
1) distinct beginning and end
2) short duration
3) movement prepared in advance
Name 3 characteristics of serial skills:
1) discrete actions linked together
2) order is important; longer movement time ; practice in parts
3) some prepared in advance, others adjusted during
Name 3 characteristics of continuous skills:
1) repetitive and rhythmic with arbitrary beginning and end
2) longer time span determined by goal or person
3) ongoing movement adjustments
Golf swing is categorized as:
Transferring from a wheelchair to bed is categorized as:
Walking with an assistive device is categorized as:
serial / continuous
Cross-country is categorized as:
Pedaling a stationary bicycle is categorized as:
Striking a match is categorized as:
What are the 3 skill types for Environmental Predictability (classification 3)
1) Closed Skill
2) Open skill
High level of predictability =
environmental context features are stationary =
Consistency and refinement are the objectives of:
Variable and unpredictable =
Supporting surfaces, objects, and/or other people are in motion during skill performance =
Adaptability is the key objective =
The stability of the environment may impact the learner differently depending on _____________________.
The stage of learning
During _____ learning, a ______ environment may be beneficial, requires fewer demands on information processing systems
early learning a closed EN
With _________ learning, ______ EN may be better as it provides greater variability for greater diversification of skill performance.
advance learning, open EN
Gentile's two-dimensional taxonomy combines ______________________ and _____________________.
movement precision and environmental stability.
Stationary is to _____ skill as in motion is to -_____ skill.
What are the two sub-classifications of body stability and mobile body?
no object manipulation and object manipulation
Relatively permanent change in capability to perform a skill as a result of practice or experience that is inferred is ______.
The observable and measurable outcome of executing a motor skill is:
True or false: Performances are measured.
Performance is highly variable and specific to a ____ and _____.
Time and place
What are 4 ways by which we can infer that learning has occurred?
1) Persistent improvement
2) Better consistency - whats one way to measure this?
3) Stability of performance - performance is stable even with disruptions
4) Adaptability - can apply learned skills in differenct contexts
What concept do both models for learning assume?
That learning starts cognitively and progresses towards automatic movements.
Which model for learning emphasizes a description of motor skill performance form stage to stage?
Fitts and Posner 3 stage model
Which model for learning focuses on the learning process and instruction occurring during the stages?
What are the 3 stages of the Fitts and Posner model?
1) cognitive stage
2) associative stage
3) autonomous stage
Initial stage of motor skill training- "getting the idea", ie development of the basis movement pattern
cognitive stage (1 of 3)
During the cognitive stage (1 of 3) performance is __________________ with lack of consistency from one trial to next.
In what stage are errors large in number and magnitude and learners are not completely aware of how to correct errors?
cognitive stage (1 of 3)
Improvement is often rapid (in cognitive stage 1 of 3) but, improvement in task knowledge likely exceeds _______________.
In the associative stage (2 of 3), a person has learned to associate specific environmental cues with ___________________________.
the movements required to achieve the goal of the skill
In the associative stage, performance is more _______ and less _________.
more consistent and less variable (errors are smaller and fewer)
During the associative stage it is important to try multiple strategies, but __________________________.
know which ones are good and which don't work
An individual in the associative stage can now identify ___________________________.
own performance errors
What is the most important feature in the autonomous stage (3 of 3)?
Attentional resources are now free to be placed on things other than the movement.
In the autonomous stage (3 of 3), an individual can do a the skill:
In the autonomous stage (3 of 3), errors can be easily _________ and _________.
detected and corrected
What are 2 important goals of the initial stage (1 of 2)
1) Develop a movement coordination pattern that allows some degree of success
2) Discriminate b/n regulatory and non-regulatory conditions
A regulatory conditions includes:
how to determine how one must move (eg. size/shape of a cup, amount of liquid in a cup)
A non-regulatory condition:
eg. color of cup
Development of the basic movement patterns, learning rules or strategy and emphasis on figuring out the best movements are characteristics of which stage?
Initial (idea of movement) stage
Beginners explore a variety of _____________________.
When learning, how to we achieve success?
Through trial and error
In the later stage (2 of 2) of Gentile's model, learners goals depend on ___________________.
the type of skill (open vs closed)
What two factors are involved in Gentile's later stage?
Working to develop capability to perform with little, if any, conscious effort is a characteristic of:
When a movement pattern becomes more refined with practice, is a characteristic of:
A closed skill requiring _______ of basic movement coordination learned during initial stage. Is part of what stage?
part of the later stage
When open skills require multiple strategies to complete a movement successfully, is a characteristic of:
When conditions may continually change is a characteristic of: