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Flashcards in Week 7 Lecture Deck (92):
1

In the human information processing as a computer metaphor:
1. Sensory systems take in information from an _________________ source
2. Perceptual processes lead to creation of some form of symbolic representation of ________________ and __________________
3. Information is compared with _____________________________and processed for learning
4. Speed of processing determines when _____________ occurs
5. Information output can result in various kinds and qualities of ________________.

1. Sensory systems take in information from an EXTERNAL source
2. Perceptual processes lead to creation of some form of symbolic representation of ENVIRONMENTAL and TASK
3. Information is compared with EXISTING MEMORY STORES and processed for learning
4. Speed of processing determines when OUPTUT occurs
5. Information output can result in various kinds and qualities of MOVEMENT.

2

see slide 5

see slide 5

3

stimulus identification (perception) -->

response selection (decision making)

4

response selection (decision making) -->

response execution

5

what is an example of stimulus identification:

icy sidewalk

6

What is an example of response selection:

take smaller steps

7

What is an example of response execution:

decrease push-off in gait

8

stimulus identification =

receptors transform stimuli into coding impulses

9

What are 3 coding impulses of stimulus identification:

1. frequency (or rate) coding
2. temporal coding
3. population coding

10

perception -->

meaning is assigned to stimuli

11

What 3 components of of perception:

1. pattern recognition
2. stimulus features
3. predictive capablities

12

Response selection compares choices from existing:

motor memory stores

13

In response execution, the CNS may organized the following details:

• muscles to perform the task
• temporal onset of muscle action (relative timing - e.g. from GMP)
• muscle organization force / duration (parameters)

14

Output =

organized movement response

15

Movement preparation takes __________ time.

finite

16

Reaction time (RT) =

between "go" signal and response initiation

17

movement time (MT) =

between response initiation and response termination

18

response time =

from "go" signal to response termination

19

foreperiod =

between warning signal and "go" signal

20

what is the most common measure of cognitive performance/ information processing with movement?

reaction time

21

Does reaction time include the movement itself?

no
(signal may be a sound, light, snap of a football...)

22

Why use reaction time?

can be used to infer multiple characteristics of movement

23

What characteristics of movement can reaction time be used to infer?

1. mental processing
2. situation recognition - recognition of environmental hazards, interaction with the EN

24

simple RT =

one signal, one movement

25

choice RT =

>1 signal, different response for each signal

26

discrimination RT =

> 1 signal, one response

27

What type of RT situation has the fasted RT time?

simple RT

28

Which is the most difficult RT situation?

discrimination Rt

29

Where can the system break down in pts in perceiving sensation?

• lack of peripheral sensation - e.g. diabetic neuropathy
• perception of sensation - parietal lobe lesions

30

Where can the system break down in pts in response selection?

• brain injury, vestibular lesions

31

Where can the system break down in pts in response execution?

• slowed movement - Parkinson's Disease
• musculoskeletal pain

32

List some Task/Environmental factors that influence movement preparation during stimulus identification:

1. stimulus intensity
2. stimulus type
3. stimulus predictability

33

List some Task/Environmental factors that influence movement preparation during response selection:

1. stimulus-response compatibility
2. number of choices

34

List some Task/Environmental factors that influence movement preparation during response execution:

1. movement complexity
2. accuracy demands

35

visual stimulus (light) RT =

~ 200ms

36

auditory stimulus (buzzer) RT =

~180ms

37

Force-period (FP) =

time between warning signal and Go signal

38

RT improves with (during FP) =

• time predictability and
• stimulus predictability

39

Time predictability =

optimal force-period length (1-4 seconds)

40

Stimulus predictability =

• football snap signals
• orchestra downbeat

41

FP is dependent on attention:

if you divert attention b/n the pre-cue and the signal to move, the benefit of the pre-cue is lost

42

RT increases as foreperiod interval increases e.g. longer the Foreperiod length, __________________________ .

the longer the RT to stimulus ('go' signal)

43

stimulus-response compatibility =

extent to which stimulus and response naturally related

44

If stimulus-response compatibility is low -->

increased preparation time

45

If stimulus-response compatibility is high -->

decreased preparation time

46

A decision making study of simple vs choice RT found (right finger on button; finger on button):

• press right when right light comes on
• press left when left comes one

47

Hick's law =

as number of choice increases: reaction time increases

48

Specifically hick's law found:

as the number of decision increases, RT increases by about 150 ms.

49

RT increases nearly linearly as # of stimulus-response choices:

DOUBLES

50

What is the biggest influence on movement time?

interval between start and completion of movement

51

(Movement time) When used in conjunction with RT measures can determine whether movement is being planned in:

advance of movement or during execution

52

Rapid movements (

advance planning

53

Greater accuracy demands required:

increased amount of preparation time

54

What is the logarithmic speed/ accuracy tradeoff (3 factors interact):

1. how far you have to move
2. how fast you move
3. how accurate you need to be

55

Fitt's law =

MT = a + b log2(2D/W)

56

MT =

movement time

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D =

distance moved

58

W =

target size

59

Average _____________________ increases as _________________ increases and ____________________ decreases.

Average MOVEMENT TIME (MT) increases as MOVEMENT AMPLITUDE (D) increases and TARGET WIDTH (W) decreases.

60

log2 (2D/W) =

index of difficulty

61

index of difficulty =

as targets get smaller or farther apart, the movement time gets longer)

62

the index of difficulty can be applied to:

• aiming tasks
• reaching / grasping
• piano playing
• pegs into holes ... etc

63

(Fitt's law) How does this apply to movement (action) preparation?

• need to prepare movement goal (do i go fast or do I try to be accurate)
• need to select program for ballistic movement
• need to prepare how to stop (example of putting a key into a keyhole)

64

(influence of instruction type) If emphasize speed, movement latency will:

decrease at the cost of accuracy

65

(influence of instruction type) If emphasize accuracy, latency will:

increase but accuracy improves

66

If the level of arousal is too high, at a certain level, the quality of performance:

decreases

67

True or false: Level of arousal can be too high or too low?

True

68

The optimal level of arousal depends on difficulty of task. Higher arousal for _____________ tasks to reach maximum performance ; lower level of arousal for _____________ task to reach maximum performance.

Higher arousal for EASY tasks
(slightly) Lower arousal for HARDER tasks

69

Performer characteristic influencing movement preparation is TASK EXPERIENCE. For this there are 2 types of attention focuses:

1. signal (sensory set)
2. movement (motor set)

70

Signal (sensory set) =

focus on sound of gun (signal)

71

movement (motor set) =

focus on moving as quickly as possible (movement required)

72

Sensory set RT __________________ motor set RT by ~20ms

faster than

73

Age is a performer characteristic influencing movement preparation. RT more variable with age (not just speed of mental processing). Older adults:

• are more thorough with response monitoring
• tend to attend to one stimulus, ignore another

74

Sleep is a performer characteristic influencing movement preparation. Deprivation causes:

longer RT and missing stimuli (24 hours sleep deprivation lengthened RT of 20-25 year old subjects; no effect on 52-63 year old subjects)

75

RT gets longer with mental ___________.

fatigue
(but not muscular fatigue)

76

Physical fitness is important more fit =

faster RT (attributed to increased arousal)

77

Distraction is a performer characteristic influencing movement preparation.
Background noise decreases RT by:

inhibiting parts of cerebral cortex
.... cell phones

78

Evidence shows that the perception of increased productivity when multitasking is a _____________.

fallacy

79

Up to 50% of all motor vehicle accidents (MVA) can be related to:

driver inattention

80

85% of cell phone owners use while driving. True or false?

True

81

_______% of people in MVA's used cell phone within 10 min prior to accident

24

82

Driving simulator studies showed drivers missed ______________ more traffic signals while on phone and RT significantly _____________.

2x

longer

83

Is there is a significant difference between hand-held and hands-free cell phone use?

NO

Thus, it's not that your hand is off the wheel, but that your MIND is distracted

84

Drivers also show movement coordination problems with:

hands-free unit

85

Accident risk when using cell phone while driving is 5.36X ______________ than undistracted driver

greater

(the same as drivers with BAC = 0.8, the legal limit for DUI)

86

Texting is even worse:

accounting for 25% of all driving accidents

87

Surveys show that a high percentage of drivers have the belief that the law of attention does not apply to them. True or false?

True

i.e. they have seen others impaired by multitasking but they, themselves, are the exception

88

Increase size, contrast, and or intensity of stimuli for:

identification

89

Practice under a variety of:

stimulus conditions

90

If possible:

simplify the movement

91

Pre-cue pts on:

what to expect

92

Teach patient to anticipate=

problem solve potential obstacles or hazards