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Flashcards in Week 3 Lecture Deck (102):
1

Practice parameters that enhance immediate performance may not benefit _____-_____ learning of skills.

long-term

2

What is acquisition?

The process or experience of gaining skill proficiency

3

Motor skill learning advances through stages controlled by different neurobiological mechanisms.
Fast --> _________-________ learning
Slow --> ________-_________ learning

Fast --> within-session learning
Slow --> inter-session learning

4

What are two primary learning concepts?

Retention and transfer

5

Define retention:

-assessing performance of skill practiced during acquisition phase under same relative conditions that were present during acquisition.

6

What does immediate retention reflect?

fast learning mechanisms

7

What does delayed retention reflect?

reflects slow learning mechanisms

8

Define transfer:

proficiency of a learned skill applied under novel conditions (task or EN).

9

Assessment of Motor Performance:

Interpretation - Observable trends in New Skill learning

10

Define performance curves:

systematic plotting results from repeated measurements of a specific variable across time (e.g. retention tests).

11

What are 3 key points about performance curves:

1) rate of improvement is task specific
2) negatively accelerated pattern is most typical
3) Performance plateus

12

What is a negatively accelerated pattern?

During acquisition phase, large initial improvement, which slows later in practice

13

Power Law of Practice:

(insert pic)

14

Performance is to ___________ as learning is to ____________.

Performance is to transient as learning is to permanent.

15

In the Power Law of Practice, there is a strong relationship between performance improvement and _____________.

experience

16

What are the hypotheses supporting performance plateaus?

-trying different strategies
-psychological factors (arousal, anxiety, boredom, fear of failure)
-insufficient physical prowess
-poor understanding of instructions
-focusing on wrong cues

17

True or false: Presence of a plateau means that learning has ceases.

False : presence of a plateau DOES NOT mean that learning has ceased

18

What is the essence of learning?

relative permanence in improved capability of motor skill performance

19

Practice induces _________-_________ changes in functional networks of the brain

learning-dependent

20

What is motor memory?

A representation of motor action in all its forms, from skeletal movement to language, which is acquired through practice or experience.

21

What does each phase (of learning) reflect?

Each phase reflects different processes that may be manipulated to create beneficial or detrimental learning effects, i.e

22

Different practice strategies -->

different brain adaptations

23

Principle 1: Use it or lose it =

failure to drive specific brain functions can lead to functional degradation

24

Principle 2: Use it and improve it=

Training that drives specific brain function can lead to enhancement

25

Principle 3: Specificity =

Nature of training determines the nature of the plasticity
(train fast --> perform fast)

26

Principle 4: Repetition matters =

Induction of plasticity requires repetition

27

Principle 5: Intensity matters =

Induction of plasticity requires sufficient training intensity

28

Principle 6: Time matters =

different forms of plasticity occur at different times during training

29

Principle 7: Salience (meaning ) matters =

training experience must have sufficient meaning to the learner to induce plasticity

30

Principle 8: Age matters = training-induced plasticity occurs more readily in younger brains

training-induced plasticity occurs more readily in younger brains

31

Principle 9: Transference =

Plasticity in response to one training experience can enhance the acquisition of similar behaviors.

32

Principle 10: Interference =

Plasticity in response to one experience can interfere with the acquisition of other behaviors.

33

Facilitate specific ____________ to improve and master a skill.

intention

34

When effective information is provided, it is possible to ________________________________ and _________________________.

- optimize attention all strategies
- build strong motivation and effort

35

Creating individual-based practice and learner input allows for _________________________ and _____________________________..

discovery learning AND learning with variation

36

Explicit, well-defined goals that are ___________________________________ to achieve were beneficial to EX and performance.

moderately challenging

37

_____________________ goals combined w/ _____________________ goals were more effective than _____________________ goals alone.

Short-term
long-term
long-term

38

Well defined goals focus specifically on what _____________________________.

activities have to be done

39

Well defined goals assist in _______________________________.

managing the effort given

40

Well defined goals help sustain __________________________.

focused attention

41

Well defined goals function as a reference for ________________________________.

performance comparison

42

Who must set the goals, the learner or the instructor?

SPECIFIC goals can be set by the learner or instructor --> and lead to greater retention rates

43

True or False: Communication is not important between learner and instructor.

False: Strong communication b/n learner and instructor is critical to learning and performance.

44

Presentation of skills involves 3 components:

1) Introduction
2) Verbal instructions
3) Demonstration

45

In the introduction of skill presentation what a learner is about to learn and why establishes:

motivational factors

46

What are considered motivational factors?

- purpose of tasks
- how smaller components relate to larger functional ability

47

During the introduction of skill presentation it is important to be _______________ and ___________.

simple and concise

48

What are three rules of verbal instructions?

1) communicate the general idea
2) Establish regulatory features of the task
3) define the learners's focus of attention

49

When communicating the general idea, words often have _____________ value with movements learned for the first time

limited

50

Excessively detailed or elaborate explanations are of no value and ____________________________________________________________________.

and may interfere w/ learning or overload learner w/ too much info.

51

Which is better "what I want you to do is scoot forward in your chair." or "scoot forward"

scoot forward

52

Where should the learner's attention be focused?

Width (broad or narrow) and direction (inward vs outward)

53

External and narrow =

- movement goal / outcome
- EN obstacle
(EXTERNAL FOCUS)

54

External and broad=

-Court sense
-EN awareness
(AWARENESS)

55

Internal and narrow =

-Decision making
-Systemic problem solving
-Mental imagery
-Physiological processes
(INTERNAL FOCUS)

56

Internal and broad =

-Analysis and planning
- "Big picture" goals and strategies
- Physiological body scanning
(CONCEPTS AND STRATEGIES)

57

For internal focus of attention, instructions refer to performers's movements, describe ________________________________.

certain body parts

58

In external focus of attention, attention directed at the effects of one's ______________________________ or other regulatory features of the EN.

movements on the EN

59

Motor skills across the spectrum (gross--> fine, closed --> open) are best learned when attention is focused......

Externally!

60

In the constrained action hypothesis; Internal focus results in a conscious attempt to control movements, ______________ with automatic motor control processes, __________ conscious attention to other parts of the motor task.

Interferes w/ automatic....
Prevents conscious attention...

61

Focusing attention on performing one's movements during tasks can interfere with ________________________ and ____________________.

performance of well learned skills
learning new movements

62

In the action effect hypothesis instructions directed to the intended outcome of the movement are ________ effective than those _____________________.

more
focused on the movement themselves

63

Focusing on a specific movement _________ simplifies the brain's movement planning. Enables the brain to organized the _______________________. Lets performers acquire environmental regularities through ____________.

outcome
most effective solution
discovery learning

64

What requires the learner to independently come up with the optimal solution to a given movement problem?

Discovery learning
*forces problem solving

65

Discovery learning promotes _______________________ rather than ________________.

exploration of strategies
imitation

66

What are 2 important advantages of discovery learning?

1) forces learner to problem solve more than other approaches
2) shifts role of practitioner from teacher to facilitator

67

Discovery learning in the clinic: A movement problem is presented and learner is left to _________________________ to achieve the goal.

discover appropriate strategy

68

After sufficient exploration, emerging strategies are __________ and ________ by learner.

compared and contrasted

69

Strategies are subsequently refined until more _______________________.

effective one emerge

70

By simplifying the learning environment:

reduces the degrees of freedom that must be controlled by the learner.

71

Skill presentation, part 3) demonstration (or modeling) =

process of watching another person perform a movement to be learned before attempting to physically reproduce the action.

72

Demonstration is probably the:

most common means to communicate how to do a movement skill.

73

Visual modeling:

vision trumps all other sense

74

In visual modeling, information is presented with words alone: retention rate =

10%

75

In visual modeling, add a picture: retention rate =

65%

76

People can inherently recognize ________________________ and perceive key movement characteristics.

movement patterns

77

A hypothesized neural basis for observational learning is what?

motor neurons (aka visual-motor neurons)

78

fMRI shows activation in what three lobes?

1) inferior frontal cortex (SMA)
2) medial temporal lobe
3) superior parietal lobe

79

When a person acts and when they are observing an action which regions of the brain are active?

1) inferior frontal cortex (SMA)
2) medial temporal lobe
3) superior parietal lobe

80

Mirror neurons may code the concrete represntation of the action, ie:

the pattern of activation produced if actually performing

81

Who makes a better demonstrator, an expert or a novice?

novice

82

Skilled/expert model: Cognitive representation is developed as a function of observing model - the more correct the model _____________________________________. Observer perceives information about the strategies used to solve the movement problem

the more correct the perceived representation.

83

Unskilled model: discourages imitation of skilled model - encourages:

active problem solving

84

Unskilled model: enhances self confidence, decreases distress and demonstrates learning strategies. Watching coping model is effective for _________________ but not a highly skilled learner

early learner

85

When should we demonstrate?

1) before the person begins practicing the skill (encourage active demonstration)
2) with continued demonstration as often as necessary

86

When should a learner imitate?

1) Concurrent imitation
2) delayed imitation

87

What is concurrent imitation?

- learner imitates WHEN model moves
-strong guidance facilitates the match between the demonstrated and imitated movement pattern.
-BUT the amount of cognitive effort theoretically is minimized by allowing the observer to coordinate imitation with modeled action.

88

Near perfect scores for concurrent demon in _______________ phase

acquisition (initial process of going through task)

89

What is delayed imitation?

-learner imitates AFTER the model moves
-forces learner to retain concept of task
-effect on learning

90

Early acquisition performance for delayed group ______________ the performance of groups able to concurrently rehearse.

lagged behind

91

Delayed acquisition looked ___________ than concurrent.

worse

92

Increasing "cognitive load"/cognitive effort to imitate modeled action initially __________________ accuracy of limitation.

suppresses

93

Auditory modeling works well where the goal is to move:

in a certain time or rhythm

94

In a group where one some only saw whereas other heard, the learners who only _______ did better.

heard

95

List 7 clinically relevant guidelines for demonstration:

1) pre-practice demonstration result in better acquisition and retention performance compared to no demonstration
2) demonstration has the greatest impact when the skill requires a new pattern of coordination
3) when learning a new skill, use verbal cues with a visual demonstration
4) demonstrations should be frequent through practice
5) make sure the observer sees the critical features of the skill
6) observation by a beginner of another beginner practicing a skill can facilitate learning
7) use auditory demonstration for skill that involve rhythm

96

What is the 1st clinically relevant guideline for demonstration?

1) pre-practice demonstration result in better acquisition and retention performance compared to no demonstration

97

What is the 2nd clinically relevant guideline for demonstration?

2) demonstration has the greatest impact when the skill requires a new pattern of coordination

98

What is the 3rd clinically relevant guideline for demonstration?

3) when learning a new skill, use verbal cues with a visual demonstration

99

What is the 4th clinically relevant guideline for demonstration?

4) demonstrations should be frequent through practice

100

What is the 5th clinically relevant guideline for demonstration?

5) make sure the observer sees the critical features of the skill

101

What is the 6th clinically relevant guideline for demonstration?

6) observation by a beginner of another beginner practicing a skill can facilitate learning

102

What is the 7th clinically relevant guideline for demonstration?

7) use auditory demonstration for skill that involve rhythm