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Flashcards in Week 5 Deck (120):
1

Dedicated effort toward improving upon a skill is considered:

practice

2

How does continued practice helps shape, retain and develop a motor skill?

- found in motor learning theories = learning takes repetition to increasingly stable MOTOR MEMORIES of that skill/task
- used along w/ SENSORY FEEDBACK, SENSORY PROCESSING and ERROR CORRECTION while performing task.

3

What is training aimed at?

improving physiological function and physical proficiency

4

Practice is aimed at

learning decision-making skills and motor execution skills

5

Practice is improving ___________________, _____________, __________________, ________________, and _________________.

mental performance, tactics, strategies, team play, and motor skill

6

is it simply good enough to practice something over and over and over?

No
-practice does not make perfect
-perfect practice does not make perfect

7

Does perfect practice make perfect?

NO

8

Why do errors need to be made for learning to occur?

A subject learns how to solve the motor problem with self-generated solutions

9

What are 4 practice conditions?

1) # of practice attempts
2) scheduling practice
3) rest periods
4) fatigue

10

What are the 5 practice domains?

1) structure
2) schedule
3) spacing
4) components
5) rehearsal

11

structure =

constant vs variable

12

schedule =

blocked vs random

13

spacing =

masses vs distributed

14

components =

whole vs part

15

rehearsal =

physical vs imagery

16

constant practice =

practicing the same skill in the same condition
- constant --> closed EN

17

Variable practice =

practicing the same skill while varying parameters of the skill

18

How can you vary a practice structure?

-relative COMPONENTS of skill
-relative TIMING of the skill
-relative DISPLACEMENT/VELOCITY and FORCE of the skill
-relative ENVIRONMENTAL condition

19

For initial stages of learning:

-learner needs to understand basic components of the task before adding variability

20

Discrete --> fewer task components -->

early variability

21

Serial/continuous -->

if repetitive, early variability

22

Complex tasks -->

longer duration constant practice proportional to complexity

23

What should be varied?

regulatory conditions (gentile)
-determine how a task must be done

24

Practice schedule = for several tasks practiced in

same session

25

A blocked schedule =

practice of one skill before practicing the next skill's trials are performed sequentially w/o interruption

26

What is a random practice schedule?

various skills practiced in unsystematic way; trials are never performed more than once in order

27

Schmidt predicted that practicing a variety of different ways to perform a skill during practice provides the learner _____________________________________________________.

opportunity to apply different parameters to skill.

28

Serial practice schedules =

each pattern is practice every session, in same order.

29

What is contextual interference (CI) =

A memory and performance DISRUPTION that results from performing multiple skills of variations of a skill w/n context of a single practice situation

30

What are 2 factors that make performing a task more difficult in practice?

1) internal to task
2) external to task

31

Random practice schedule -->

High CI conditions during acquisition
(better performance on retention and transfer tests)

32

Blocked practice schedule -->

Low CI conditions
(better performance in post-practice acquisition)

33

Practice schedule with high CI lead to better:

persistent improvement (long-term learning)

34

Poor performance during initial practice but better performance on retention and transfer tests for different skills - more learning is a result of :

High CI

35

On a scale from 1-5 (1 being low CI and 5 being High CI) rank the following practice schedules.
-Serial repetition of short blocks of trials of each variation
-Random order of trials of all task variations
-Serial order of all tasks of all task variations
-Nonrepeated blocks of trials of each task variation
-Random repetition of short blocks of trials of each task variation

1)Nonrepeated blocks of trials of each task variation
2) Serial repetition of short blocks of trials of each variation
3)Random repetition of short blocks of trials of each task variation
4)Serial order of all tasks of all task variations
5)Random order of trials of all task variations

36

What is practice?

acquisition of a skill/tasks through repetitive performance of that skill/ task

37

What is practice?

1) acquisition of a skill/task through repetitive performance of that skill/task
2) dedicated effort toward improving upon a skill
3) continued practice helps shape, retain, and develop a motor skill

38

Found in motor learning theories =

learning takes repetition to increasingly stable motor memories of that skill/task

39

Continued practice used along w/ sensory feedback, sensory processing and __________________ while performing a task

error correction

40

What is training aimed at improving?

physiological function and physical proficiency

41

What is practice aimed at?

at learning decision-making skills and motor execution skills

42

What is practice aimed at improving?

mental performance, tactics, strategies, team play, and motor skill.

43

True or false: It is not good enough to simply practice something over and over and over.

True: practice does not make perfect, perfect practice does not make perfect.

44

Errors need to be made for ___________ to occur

learning

45

Subjects learn how to solve the motor problem best with ___________________ solutions.

self-generated solutions

46

What are 4 types of practice conditions?

1) number of practice attempts
2) scheduling practice
3) rest periods
4) fatigue

47

List the 5 practice domains:

1) structure
2) schedule
3) spacing
4) components
5) rehearsal

48

constant vs variable =

structure

49

blocked vs random =

schedule

50

massed vs distributed =

spacing

51

whole vs part =

components

52

physical vs imagery=

rehearsal

53

constant practice =

practicing the same skill in the same condition
(constant --> closed EN)

54

Variable practice =

practicing the same skill while varying parameters of the skill
(relative components, timing, displacement/velocity and force, EN conditions of the skill)

55

For the initial stages of learning, the learner needs to understand basic components of the task before:

adding variability

56

discrete --> fewer task components -->

early variability

57

serial/continuous --> if repetitve -->

early variability

58

complex tasks-->

longer duration constant practice proportional to complexity

59

What do we vary?

regulatory conditions

60

Practice schedule for several tasks practice in:

same session

61

Practice of one skill before practicing the next skill's trials are performed sequentially without interruption =

blocked

62

various skills practiced in unsystematic way; trials are never performed more than once in order =

random

63

Schmidt predicted that practicing a variety of different ways to perform a skill during practice provides the learner and opportunity to:

apply different parameters to skill

64

Serial practice schedule =

each pattern is practiced everyday in same order

65

Contextual interference (CI) =

a memory and performance disruption that results from performing multiple skills or variations of a skill within context of a single practice situation

66

What are factors that make performing a task more difficult in practice:

internal to task
external to task

67

Random practice schedule --> __________ conditions during acquisition phase --> Better performance on retention and transfer tests

High CI

68

Blocked practice schedule --> __________ conditions during acquisition phase --> Better performance in post-practice acquisiton

Low CI

69

Practice schedules with high contextual interference lead to better:

persistent improvement (long-term learning)

70

On a scale from 1-5 (1 being low and 5 being high) rank the following schedules on their level of CI:
-Serial order of all trials of all task variations
-Serial repetition of short blocks of trials of each variation
-Non repeated blocks of trials of each task variation
-Random order of trials of all task variations
-Random repetition of short blocks of trials of each task variation

1) Nonrepeated blocks of trials of each task variation
2) Serial repetition of short blocks of trials of each variation
3) Random repetition of short blocks of trials of each task variation
4) Serial order of all trials of all task variations
5) Random order of trials of all task variations

71

Poor performance during initial practice but better performance on retention and transfer tests for different skills =

more learning

72

Define the elaboration hypothesis:

random practice causes learner to engage more strategies and then elaborate or discover the distinctive nature of each skill

73

Learn can compare/ contrast the nuances involved so that each becomes distinct (find a new aspect of the skill); this doesn't happen when performing:

a skill over and over

74

Define action plan reconstruction hypothesis:

random practice creates inter-trial interference
(allows short-term forgetting, requiring learner to generate a solution on every trial / initial performance is hindered)

75

High amounts of CI benefit _______ because person reconstructs action plan on the ____ practice trial

learning
next

76

Random practice encourages use of ________________ with long-term memory.

retrieval skills

77

Blocked practice tends to lend learners to _______________ how well they are learning during practice.

over-estimate

78

List 2 practice components:

1. whole-task practice
2. part-task practice

79

What is whole-task practice?

-presenting a complete task to learners that can be practice as a single unit

80

What is part-task practice?

-splitting a task into sub-tasks that may be practice in isolation from the whole

81

Skill complexity =

the number of parts or components of a skill
- attention demands

82

Skill organization =

-High organization (components are spatially and temporally interdependent e.g. basketball jump shot, blacksmith hammering)
-Low organization

83

Can a skill be high in both complexity and organization, low in both, or high in one and low in another?

Yes

84

Most complex skills have phases:

- preparation phase
- action phase
-follow-through phase

85

What can whole task practice help eliminate?

eliminate burden of repeating simple parts of a task

86

Low complexity (few parts) & high organization (highly related parts) =

practice whole skill

87

High complexity (many parts) and low organization (independence of parts) =

practice part skill
** eventually will need to bring it all together.

88

Fractionization =

involves practicing components of the whole skill' typically w/ asymmetric limb coordination

89

Segmentation =

separating skill into parts, practicing parts so that after 1 part is practice, it is practice with next part

90

Simplification =

reducing difficulty of different parts

91

When practicing spacing, the practitioner must decide:

-how many practice schedules to schedule each week
- how to space or distribute practice between each practice session

92

Massed practice =

practice time >>> rest time

93

What does massed practice lead to?

leads to fewer practice sessions

94

Distributed practice =

practice time = rest time

95

Distributed practice must be extended over ___________ to equal practice volume of massed practice

longer time

96

Generally (but not concrete) continuous task are best practiced:

distributed

97

Generally (but not concrete) discrete task are best practiced:

massed

98

Massed practice schedules produce ____________________________ vs distributed practice

immediate improvements in performance

99

Learning advantages favor _________ practice

Distributed
- type of practice schedule chosen may ultimately be determined by the type of skill to be learned

100

Shorter more frequent bouts is better!

Shorter more frequent bouts is better!

101

physical practice =

physical performance of skill

102

Mental practice =

active cognitive or mental rehearsal of a skill

103

In mental practice, a person may think about _________________. Or engage in visual or ____________ imagery of performance (whole or parts)

procedural aspects of a skill

kinesthetic

104

Imagery may be ________ and _________.

Internal and external

105

Describe internal imagery:

-1st person perspective
- individual images being inside his/her body and experiences sensations which would be expected in the actual situatin

106

Describe external imagery:

-3rd person perspective
- individual views from the perspective of the observer (ie watching yourself do task)

107

What are 2 types of mental imagery?

1. motivational
2. cognitive

108

What are the 3 components of mental imagery?

1. specific
2. general mastery
3. general arousal

109

Specific:
General mastery:
General arousal:

Specific: represents specific goals (winning a medal for first place)

General mastery: effective coping strategies and mastery of a challenging situation (being confident or focused)

General arousal: represents feeling of relaxation, stress, anxiety (being relaxed before an event)

110

The 2 components of cognitive mental imagery are:
specific =
and
general =

specific = imagery of performing specific skills (golf shot, walking dow a flight of stairs)

general = imagery of strategies related to an event (strategy to overcome a full-court press, organize items for cooking a meal)

111

Neuromuscular theory =

postulates that the act of visualizing oneself executing a movement results in the activation of the same pathways in the brain that would have been activated had the movement actually been performed (sub-threshold activity in motor cortex)

112

Visual cortex excitability increases in:

visual cortex w/ visualization

113

Motor cortex excitability increases w/ imagery of limb movement in the absence of:

any physical movement

114

Cognitive theory =

imagery facilitates the acquisition of the cognitive elements of a skill

115

Learners develop an understanding of movement requirements and devleop:

performance strategies

116

Efficiency of imagery in that learner can practice a skill without:

risk of injury or fatigue

117

How effective is mental practice in acquisition of motor skills?
Mental + physical =

> all conditions

118

How effective is mental practice in acquisition of motor skills?
Mental (alone) =

> no practice

119

List examples that provide evidence that brain and muscle activation mirror the intensity of activity imagined:

-minute electrical discharge from muscles (EMG) were in same proportion to actual task performance
- vegetative responses covary with the degree of imagined effort
- time taken to mentally perform task matches time to physically perform

120

The amount of benefit from imagery is related to a person's imagery ability; thus, some training in mental imagery may be needed to:

optimize the effects