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Flashcards in Week 6 Deck (80):
1

Task-intrinsic feedback can be:

1. visual
2. auditory
3. proprio-ceptive
4. tactile

2

Augmented feedback includes:

1. knowledge of performance
2. knowledge or results

3

Augmented feedback is:

information provided to the learner from an external source to supplement movement-produced feedback

4

Is augmented feedback necessary?

YES

5

When is augmented FB necessary? YES, When:

-sensory pathways are impaired (disease/injury, age, accident)
-sensory information is not available
- intrinsic feedback is available but performer cannot use it (due to lack of experience)

6

When is augmented FB not necessary?

when skills have detectable external reference (target, basket)

7

What are the 3 primary positive roles of augmented feedback?

1. error correction/ guidance
2. motivation
3. reinforcement

8

Error correction/ guidance (augmented feedback):

- provide information for correction of performance errors
- may include description of correct/ incorrect aspects or outcome
- can be prescription for how to fix errors

9

Motivation (augmented feedback) :

helps make practice less boring and repetitive; motivate the learner to continue striving toward a goal

10

Reinforcement (augmented feedback):

- positive = "good on ya mate!"
-negative = removal or avoidance of neg. consequences ("operation" and barrier examples)

11

What are some major questions to consider, given that feedback is necessary:

1. how does it enhance learning?
2. how can it hinder learning?
3. what are the best ways to give feedback?
4. when is the best time to give feedback?

12

What are the 3 components of delivering optimal feedback?

1. content of FB
2. schedule of FB
3. Timing of FB

13

Knowledge of results (KR):

externally presented information about the outcome of performing a skill or achieving the goal of the performance

14

Knowledge of results is usually >

visual/ auditory

15

What are 4 examples/categories for knowledge of results?

1. accuracy
2. distance
3. time goal
4. force goal

16

Knowledge of results (KR) is sometimes redundant. Performer can often see/ fee/ hear the outcome.
- If performer _______ see and/ or feel the outcome -> KR ____________ (e.g. CVA sensory impairments)

cannot
necessary

17

What is one major advantage of KR?

KR can confirm the learners own assessments

18

Knowledge of performance (KP):

information about the movement that describes what is observed without reference to goal or outcome

19

What are 3 categories/ components of KP?

1. kinematic (velocity, displacement, motion capture)
2. kinetic (dynamometer)
3. muscle activity EMG

20

Descriptive FB =

reports observation, with no advice on how to improve

21

Prescriptive FB content =

- includes advice on how to do the task the next time
- uses attentional cueing to focus learner's attention to most pertinent information to correct the error

22

Feel how you transfer your weight from R to L

perscriptive

23

bring your foot up a little more

perscriptive

24

keep your head down more and eyes on the ball

perscriptive

25

you are putting too much spin on the ball

descriptive

26

you need to contact the ball just L or R of midline to eliminate the unwanted spin

perscriptive

27

your knee flexion has improved 15*

descriptive

28

next time, take a longer step

prescriptive

29

bend your elbow to a 45* angle

perscriptive

30

Which is better, descriptive or prescriptive?

consider the skill level

31

in the beginning which is better (prescriptive or descriptive)?

perscriptive

32

once the skill has been learned, which is better; prescriptive or descriptive?

descriptive

33

** relate prescriptive and descriptive learning to cog. assoc., and action

** relate prescriptive and descriptive learning to cog. assoc., and action

34

If goal is to facilitate skill acquisition:

give info about performance error

35

If goal is to confirm progress or encourage persistence:

focus on achievement and successful features of attempt

36

FB precision; consider skill level of learner =

-early --> general info is ok;
- more advanced learner --> more precise better

37

Sandwich approach:

error correction is sandwiched between reinforcement and motivation
- error correction = the "meat"
- positive reinforcement = the "bread"

38

Dancer example:
reinforcement =
error correction =
encouragement =

reinforcement = "good, your pelvis was in line that time"
error correction = "on the next trial, try to maintain your outward rotation while still concentrating on pelvic alignment"
encouragement = "you almost have it!"

39

In the sandwich approach, learns showed clear preference for requesting feedback after:

successful trials

40

Important considerations of the sandwich approach:

- honesty is important for effective FB
- avoid complements if positive things are hard to find

41

True or false: The more frequently a practitioner provides feedback to the learner, the greater the gains in learnings.

False

42

Feedback can either be ____________________ or ____________________.

Task-intrinsic or
augmented

43

Which is better 100% or 50% feedbacK in retention?

50% feedback --> better retention (fewer errors)

44

FB can guide learner in correction of performance errors, BUT...

too much FB can have detrimental effect

45

What can happen as a result of too much FB can have detrimental effect -->

• learner may begin to rely on it
• abandon processing of other information (e. g. intrinsic FB)
• Become passive listener, no active problem solving

46

Reduced schedule encourages:

reflective thinking (you can't get much more Jesuit than that!)

47

List the 5 FB frequency reduction strategies:

1. Faded FB
2. Bandwidth FB
3. Summary FB
4. Average FB
5. Learner- Regulated FB

48

Faded frequency FB =

higher frequency KR/ KP provided early in acquisition (i.e. early cognitive phase); gradually withdrawn in later cognitive and associative phases

49

Bandwidth FB =

• range of "correctness" of movement is predetermined (positive or negative)
• Feedback given only on trials where error falls outside this range

50

The benefit of bandwidth FB is systematically reduced according to:

learners proficiency

51

Bandwidth may be adjusted as a person:

learns a task

52

With bandwidth FB, a learner receives positive reinforcement on trials that fall within the bandwidth -->

strengthening the successful behavior

53

Interesting clinical problem regarding bandwidth FB: may experience communication problem or perception of failure to give assistance ---> when bandwidth combine with questions to learner, outcomes were _____________.

improved

54

Summary schedule FB =

summary of performance given after learner has completed a given number of trials

55

Summary schedule FB has been shown to have beneficial impact on learning, but what is not know about this type of FB?

the optimal number of trials summarized is not fully known (may be a function of task complexity)

56

Average FB =

learner receives feedback after a certain number of attempts (similar to summary FB).

57

In average FB, FB will be average performance in the series, instead of:

FB about each trial

58

An example of Average FB includes teaching a pt to rise from chair using walker:

• FB given after every 5th attempt
• Many mistakes but FB given only about most common tendency, e.g. pulling up on the walker while rising

59

Learner-regulated FB =

Learner controls when and how much feedback is given.

60

Learner-regulated FB is effective at __________________ and __________________

reducing and individualizing FB

61

Learner-regulated FB involves the _____________ in the learning process.

learner

62

Research has provided what 2 findings?

1. clear learner performance for FB after successful trial (base requests on their performance)
2. learner advantage for those who make decision for FB AFTER task trial

63

Giving FB immediately following attempt can:

have NEGATIVE impact on learning

64

If given FB too soon, _______________ use of intrinsic feedback produced during attempt.

decrease

65

Delayed FB increases the number and variety of:

intrinsic FB sources used

66

Should we give feedback right away or should we wait?

WAIT

67

In regards to the feeback-delay interval, prompting learners to estimate their own performance has:

superior learning effect

68

Practitioners should assist learners to develop _____________________.
Examples include: "how was your crutch placement that time?", "Do yo think the crutches were too far forward or too far back?", "what do you think kept you from being able to transfer by yourself?"

self-evaluation skills.

69

How long do you wait to provide feedback?

There is no evidence indicating an optimal Post-KR interval, longer generally does not hurt

70

As precision of FB/ complexity of movement increases -->

time to process FB should increase

71

Post-KR interval =

learner synthesizes FB information to plan new movement strategy

72

increase complexity -->

increase time

73

Ask pt what he/she is thinking about for:

next attempt

74

Ensure understanding by observing the degree to which FB modifies the:

next attempt.

75

A person must be able to use the information (FB) :
Beginner -->
Advance -->

Beginner --> "ballpark" information
Advance --> specific information

76

What should verbal FB be based on?

the most critical components of a task

77

Prescriptive KP of better for a novice learner, what is better for an experienced learner?

descriptive is better of advanced

78

Should FB be given after every attempt

NO!!

79

use a terminal schedule that forces learner to interpret:

intrinsic feedback

80

Name 4 additional guidelines for giving FB:

1. give learner a choice of when to get FB
2. Wait a few seconds before giving FB
3. have learner engage in self-evaluation of performance, then give feedback
4. "good job" is NOT effective FB for learning