Flashcards in Week 6 Deck (80):
Task-intrinsic feedback can be:
Augmented feedback includes:
1. knowledge of performance
2. knowledge or results
Augmented feedback is:
information provided to the learner from an external source to supplement movement-produced feedback
Is augmented feedback necessary?
When is augmented FB necessary? YES, When:
-sensory pathways are impaired (disease/injury, age, accident)
-sensory information is not available
- intrinsic feedback is available but performer cannot use it (due to lack of experience)
When is augmented FB not necessary?
when skills have detectable external reference (target, basket)
What are the 3 primary positive roles of augmented feedback?
1. error correction/ guidance
Error correction/ guidance (augmented feedback):
- provide information for correction of performance errors
- may include description of correct/ incorrect aspects or outcome
- can be prescription for how to fix errors
Motivation (augmented feedback) :
helps make practice less boring and repetitive; motivate the learner to continue striving toward a goal
Reinforcement (augmented feedback):
- positive = "good on ya mate!"
-negative = removal or avoidance of neg. consequences ("operation" and barrier examples)
What are some major questions to consider, given that feedback is necessary:
1. how does it enhance learning?
2. how can it hinder learning?
3. what are the best ways to give feedback?
4. when is the best time to give feedback?
What are the 3 components of delivering optimal feedback?
1. content of FB
2. schedule of FB
3. Timing of FB
Knowledge of results (KR):
externally presented information about the outcome of performing a skill or achieving the goal of the performance
Knowledge of results is usually >
What are 4 examples/categories for knowledge of results?
3. time goal
4. force goal
Knowledge of results (KR) is sometimes redundant. Performer can often see/ fee/ hear the outcome.
- If performer _______ see and/ or feel the outcome -> KR ____________ (e.g. CVA sensory impairments)
What is one major advantage of KR?
KR can confirm the learners own assessments
Knowledge of performance (KP):
information about the movement that describes what is observed without reference to goal or outcome
What are 3 categories/ components of KP?
1. kinematic (velocity, displacement, motion capture)
2. kinetic (dynamometer)
3. muscle activity EMG
Descriptive FB =
reports observation, with no advice on how to improve
Prescriptive FB content =
- includes advice on how to do the task the next time
- uses attentional cueing to focus learner's attention to most pertinent information to correct the error
Feel how you transfer your weight from R to L
bring your foot up a little more
keep your head down more and eyes on the ball
you are putting too much spin on the ball
you need to contact the ball just L or R of midline to eliminate the unwanted spin
your knee flexion has improved 15*
next time, take a longer step
bend your elbow to a 45* angle
Which is better, descriptive or prescriptive?
consider the skill level
in the beginning which is better (prescriptive or descriptive)?
once the skill has been learned, which is better; prescriptive or descriptive?
** relate prescriptive and descriptive learning to cog. assoc., and action
** relate prescriptive and descriptive learning to cog. assoc., and action
If goal is to facilitate skill acquisition:
give info about performance error
If goal is to confirm progress or encourage persistence:
focus on achievement and successful features of attempt
FB precision; consider skill level of learner =
-early --> general info is ok;
- more advanced learner --> more precise better
error correction is sandwiched between reinforcement and motivation
- error correction = the "meat"
- positive reinforcement = the "bread"
error correction =
reinforcement = "good, your pelvis was in line that time"
error correction = "on the next trial, try to maintain your outward rotation while still concentrating on pelvic alignment"
encouragement = "you almost have it!"
In the sandwich approach, learns showed clear preference for requesting feedback after:
Important considerations of the sandwich approach:
- honesty is important for effective FB
- avoid complements if positive things are hard to find
True or false: The more frequently a practitioner provides feedback to the learner, the greater the gains in learnings.
Feedback can either be ____________________ or ____________________.
Which is better 100% or 50% feedbacK in retention?
50% feedback --> better retention (fewer errors)
FB can guide learner in correction of performance errors, BUT...
too much FB can have detrimental effect
What can happen as a result of too much FB can have detrimental effect -->
• learner may begin to rely on it
• abandon processing of other information (e. g. intrinsic FB)
• Become passive listener, no active problem solving
Reduced schedule encourages:
reflective thinking (you can't get much more Jesuit than that!)
List the 5 FB frequency reduction strategies:
1. Faded FB
2. Bandwidth FB
3. Summary FB
4. Average FB
5. Learner- Regulated FB
Faded frequency FB =
higher frequency KR/ KP provided early in acquisition (i.e. early cognitive phase); gradually withdrawn in later cognitive and associative phases
Bandwidth FB =
• range of "correctness" of movement is predetermined (positive or negative)
• Feedback given only on trials where error falls outside this range
The benefit of bandwidth FB is systematically reduced according to:
Bandwidth may be adjusted as a person:
learns a task
With bandwidth FB, a learner receives positive reinforcement on trials that fall within the bandwidth -->
strengthening the successful behavior
Interesting clinical problem regarding bandwidth FB: may experience communication problem or perception of failure to give assistance ---> when bandwidth combine with questions to learner, outcomes were _____________.
Summary schedule FB =
summary of performance given after learner has completed a given number of trials
Summary schedule FB has been shown to have beneficial impact on learning, but what is not know about this type of FB?
the optimal number of trials summarized is not fully known (may be a function of task complexity)
Average FB =
learner receives feedback after a certain number of attempts (similar to summary FB).
In average FB, FB will be average performance in the series, instead of:
FB about each trial
An example of Average FB includes teaching a pt to rise from chair using walker:
• FB given after every 5th attempt
• Many mistakes but FB given only about most common tendency, e.g. pulling up on the walker while rising
Learner-regulated FB =
Learner controls when and how much feedback is given.
Learner-regulated FB is effective at __________________ and __________________
reducing and individualizing FB
Learner-regulated FB involves the _____________ in the learning process.
Research has provided what 2 findings?
1. clear learner performance for FB after successful trial (base requests on their performance)
2. learner advantage for those who make decision for FB AFTER task trial
Giving FB immediately following attempt can:
have NEGATIVE impact on learning
If given FB too soon, _______________ use of intrinsic feedback produced during attempt.
Delayed FB increases the number and variety of:
intrinsic FB sources used
Should we give feedback right away or should we wait?
In regards to the feeback-delay interval, prompting learners to estimate their own performance has:
superior learning effect
Practitioners should assist learners to develop _____________________.
Examples include: "how was your crutch placement that time?", "Do yo think the crutches were too far forward or too far back?", "what do you think kept you from being able to transfer by yourself?"
How long do you wait to provide feedback?
There is no evidence indicating an optimal Post-KR interval, longer generally does not hurt
As precision of FB/ complexity of movement increases -->
time to process FB should increase
Post-KR interval =
learner synthesizes FB information to plan new movement strategy
increase complexity -->
Ask pt what he/she is thinking about for:
Ensure understanding by observing the degree to which FB modifies the:
A person must be able to use the information (FB) :
Beginner --> "ballpark" information
Advance --> specific information
What should verbal FB be based on?
the most critical components of a task
Prescriptive KP of better for a novice learner, what is better for an experienced learner?
descriptive is better of advanced
Should FB be given after every attempt
use a terminal schedule that forces learner to interpret: