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Flashcards in Week 9 Deck (147):
1

Define memory:

an internal record or representation of some prior event or experience

2

Memory is intimately involved in:

motor learning

3

Numerous conditions may detrimentally affect our patients' memory ability in what two types of memory?

• encoding (formation)
• consolidtaion

4

Clinical intervention applications for memory are:

• maximize memory formation
• nervous system priming through therapeutic interventions

5

What are the 2 dimensions that memory can be classified along?

1. nature -of the information stored
2. time course of storage

6

The nature of the information stored =

multiple memory systems

7

The time course of storage =

multi-store model

8

What are two primary memory systems?

1. declarative
2. nondeclarative

9

Declarative memory =

explicit memory

10

"knowing that..." is an example of what type of memory?

declarative

11

Two types of declarative memory are:

1. semantic
2. episodic

12

Semantic memory =

• memory of facts about the world
• information stored may include rules of a game, components of a skill, or neuroscience exam answers

13

Episodic memory (autobiographical) =

• capacity to re-experience an event in the context in which it originally occurred
• requires additional brain areas to those for semantic memory

14

declarative memory is mediated by medial temporal regions of the brain:

• hippocampus
• amygdala
• hippocampal gyrus

15

In the case of H.M., removal of _______________ region to treat seizures

medial temporal

16

procedural memory is an example of what type of memory? and is synonymous with what type of memory?

example of nondeclarative

synonymous with implicit

17

"knowing how..." is an example of ____________ memory

procedural

18

Procedural memory encompasses ______________________________, is recalled without __________________________, and is assessed through ___________________________.

Procedural memory encompasses HABITS AND MOTOR BEHAVIORS, is recalled without CONSCIOUS EFFORT, and is assessed through TESTING OF MOTOR SKILLS.

19

Name the two types of declarative memory:

1. facts
2. events

(** medial temporal lob diencephalon)

20

Name the 4 types of nondeclarative memory:

1. procedural (skills and habits)
2. priming and perceptual learning
3. simple classical conditioning
4. nonassociative learning

21

Two examples of simple classical conditioning are:

1. emotional responses
2. skeletal responses

22

Procedural memory is mediated by the:

striatum

23

priming and perceptual learning is mediated by:

neocortex

24

emotional responses (of simple classical conditioning) is mediated by:

amygdala

25

skeletal responses (of simple classical conditioning) is mediated by:

cerebellum

26

Nonassociative learning is mediated by:

reflex pathways

27

The multi-store model of memory proposes that memory comprises 3 structural (hardware) components:

1. sensory register
2. short term (working) memory
3. long-term storage

28

The sensory register is also known as:

somatosenory memory

29

somatosensory memory =

visual, auditory, proprioceptive, and tactile

30

Somatosensory memory has a ___________________________ capacity and ______________________ duration.

large (almost limitless) capacity and

very short duration (250-1000ms)

31

The duration allot in somatosensory memory is long enough to:

develop perception of stimuli

32

Sensory register is discarded without:

selective attention

33

selective attention =

when the brain filters out unnecessary inputs, moves attended information to working (short-term) memory

34

selective attention occurs between what two phase of memory?

between sensory register and working memory

35

working memory =

short term memory

36

working memory plays a role in processing of:

conscious thougts

37

Working memory is ______________________ capacity and ___________________ duration.

small, limited duration (7+- items)

brief duration (20-30 seconds)

38

without rehearsal, working memory is:

lost

39

Chunking =

• grouping items to make larger collections in memory
• identifying relationships between items

40

long-term memory is relatively ___________________ capacity for rehearsed items, once transferred from short term memory

limitless

41

long term memory has a ______________ duration

possibly lifelong

42

Forgetting is possible with longterm memory, due to different types of:

interference or retrieval failure

43

Name the 3 stages of memory formation:

1. encoding
2. consolidation
3. storage (retention)

44

encoding involves:

rehearsal

45

consolidation involves:

stabilization and enhancement

46

Storage involves:

reactivation (recall)

47

encoding =

memory representation formed

48

rehearsal =

transform represtnation from working memory to long-term storage

49

consolidation =

memory becomes more permanent

50

stabilization =

maintenance of motor skill performance off-line without practice; not dependent on sleep

51

enhancement =

improvement in performance of a skill off-line; sleep dependent

52

storage (retention) =

maintenance of memory over time

53

reactivation (recall) =

memory brought out of storage for use

54

training -->

memory formation and within-session fast learning

55

memory formation and within-session fast learning -->

consolidation (stabilization and off-line learning)

56

consolidation (stabilization and off-line learning) -->

memory reactivation and modification

57

memory reactivation and modification -->

long-term memory retention

58

At one point of the learning cycle does "susceptibility to interference and/or performance deterioration occur?"

between memory formation and within-session fast learning AND consolidation (stabilization and off-line learning)

59

Long-term memory retention leads to -->

additional practice, re-testing and/ or sleep

(which leads to --> memory reactivation and modification)

60

passage of time and/or sleep occurs during:

consolidation (stabilization and off-line learning)

61

Encoding =

fast learning (aka within session learning)

62

Encoding is the formation of the memory trace during:

active practice of task

63

Encoding is defined by rehearsal in:

working memory

64

Rehearsal in working memory leads to a shift from hippocampal processing to:

respective motor memory centers

65

Working memory is highly influenced by ____________________________ and ____________________________.

selective attention and
active problem solving

66

During encoding learner processes:

relevant information about a task

67

During encoding, the learner makes an association between what 3 factors?

1. goal
2. movement
3. movement outcome

68

Feedback, during encoding, is used to:

modulate further responses

69

Manipulation of practice environment will influence:

cognitive processing

(ex: random vs blocked)

70

Encoding lasts ______________, and is ____________ sensitive to disruption.

minutes to hours
and
is highly sensitive to disruption

71

The molecular mechanism of encoding involves:

short-term potentiation

72

short term potentiation =

modification of pre-existing proteins

(ex: • modification of ionic channels
* mobilization of neurotransmitter receptors)

73

consolidation is the ability to stabilize and enhance memories:

off-line

74

During consolidation, much of learning takes place when?

after practice

75

Molecular mechanisms, of consolidation, that give rise to structural changes in synapses include:

• long term potentiation (LTP)
• gene transcription
• protein synthesis

76

Research has identified consolidation as a set of post-acquisition, time-dependent processes where motor memory becomes:

more stable over time

77

Off-line processing is the beginning of:

storage

78

Off-line process evolves over a __________ hour period

4-6

79

Off-line process is believed to encompass start of long-term modifications in synapse ________________ and ________________.

strength and number

80

Motor memory consolidation is susceptible to ____________________ by external influences

"interference"

81

Newly formed motor memories are consolidated over the course of:

multiple hours

82

As the time since motor skill acquisition increases, the susceptibility to interference:

decreases

83

Brain activity during motor memory consolidation influences skill:

retention and transfer

84

What are two tools in research that have supported consolidation interference?

• transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
-- Task --> TMS --> Retest
• repetitive magnetic pulses to M1

85

Consolidation metaphor:

off the counter-top and into the cub-board

86

The application theory describes that learning and subsequent recall of movement skill can be enhanced by:

1. increasing amount of original learning
2. fostering understanding of task to be learned
3. Mnemonics (memory aids)
4. contextual interference during practice
5. spacing of practice (distributed practice)

87

Distributed practice effect on practice / protein synthesis:

creates more opportunities to kick off protein synthesis --> increase consolidation and increased ability to maintain selective attention

88

Cardiovascular (CV) exercise contributes to ____________________ cognitive function

maintaining or enhancing

89

The most powerful influence on executive control tasks involving frontal areas of the brain is:

CV exercise

90

Recent data show CV exercise triggers:

biochemical cascade that may enhance memory processing

91

The influence of exercise on memory acutely is?

CV exercise are time dependent

92

Different stages of memory formation (i.e. encoding, consolidation, recall) are facilitated depending on:

time of exercise performance

93

Acute and long-term CV interventions --> 2 fundamentally different distinct stages to:

improve memory

94

Exercise bout performed BEFORE or DURING learning exposure activates mechanisms that:

lower threshold for acquisition (encoding)

95

Exercise effects may persist after exercise such as:

• may influence initial consolidation process
• largest effects of acute exercise on memory occur with delayed retention (vs. immediate retention)

96

Long-term CV exercise does not improve memory significantly, BUT does have priming effect of:

mechanisms for memory processing

97

Long-term CV optimizes the effect of a single bout of:

acute exercise

98

True or false: More benefit is gained from EX/ learning if in shape.

True

99

There are timing effects of exercise due to ___________ of molecular mechanisms in encoding and consolidation

priming

100

A single bout of acute CV exercise results in benefits of priming in molecular mechanisms. Dopamine -->
Epinephrine -->
Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) -->

short-term
long-term retention
both (short and long)

101

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates survival and differentiation of:

neuronal populations during development

102

BDNF promotes differentiation, neurite extension, and survival in:

hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellar neurons

103

Acute effects of BDNF -

enhance synaptic transmission, neuronal excitability

104

Chronic effects of BDNF -

protein synthesis (mRNA translation/ transcription) --> architectural modification of motor centers

105

The BDNF gene regulation and protein release are:

activity-dependent

106

In rats, 156% increase in BDNF after 3 days ___________________ exercise

voluntary

107

In humans, peripheral BDNF elevate significantly after __________________ exercise.

acute aerobic

108

________- response of BDNF is not clear, equiviocal results for chronic exercise on BDNF __________________, and preliminary evidence that BDNF effects ________________ inversely related to VO2max, BMI, ________________ and total cholesterol.

Dose

concentrations

triglyceride

109

Increase in physical fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular) are ____________________ effects of exercise.

indirect

110

increase in neurotropic growth factors (eg, BDNF, NT-3) are __________________ effects of aerobic ex.

direct

111

increase in neurotransmitters (eg, dopamine, seratonin) are ________________ effects of aerobic exercise.

direct

112

Increase in physical fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular) leads to:

• decrease in systemic and CNS inflammation
• increase in cerebral blood flow

113

Increase in neurotropic growth factors (eg, BDNF, NT-3) leads to:

• increased neuroplasticity
• increased neurogenesis
• neuroprotection

114

Indirect and direct effects of aerobic exercise lead to:

Brain health
• increased cognitive function (ie, learning, memory, attention), increased mood, increased arousal, increased neurodegeneration

115

Future questions about the influence of BDNF Val66Met single nucleotide polymorphism indicate that _________________ of Caucasian and up to ______________________ of the Asian population have this polymorphism

20-30%

70%

116

Potential for ______________ neuronal excitatory transmission or disinhibition in Val66Met population

increased

117

Additionally there could be a _______________ modification of BDNF expression.

epigenetic

118

Sleep is classified into 2 stages:

1. Non-REM
2. REM

119

Non-rem has ______________ stages?

4

120

What is the first stage of non-REM sleep?

transition from wakefulness --> sleep

121

What is the second stage of non-REM sleep?

conscious awareness fades completely

122

What is stage 3-4 of non-REM sleep?

slow wave sleep (slow delta wave activity & deep sleep)

123

REM sleep =

paradoxical sleep - EEG pattern similar to normal wakefullness pattern

124

Stages of Healthy Sleep (see slide 42)

Stages of Healthy Sleep (see slide 42)

125

Young adults spend:
_____% in REM sleep
_____% in stage 1 Non-REM
_____% in stage 2 Non-REM
_____% stage 3-4 Non-REM

17-23% in REM sleep
3-7% in stage 1 Non-REM
45-55% in stage 2 Non-REM
19-25% stage 3-4 Non-REM

126

Older adults spend:
_____% in REM sleep
_____% in stage 1 Non-REM
_____% in stage 2 Non-REM
_____% stage 3-4 Non-REM

13-20% in REM sleep
7-12% in stage 1 Non-REM
39-55% in stage 2 Non-REM
5-16% stage 3-4 Non-REM

127

People with stroke spend:
_____% in REM sleep
_____% in stage 1 Non-REM
_____% in stage 2 Non-REM
_____% stage 3-4 Non-REM

17% in REM sleep
13% in stage 1 Non-REM
61% in stage 2 Non-REM
5% stage 3-4 Non-REM

128

Consolidation is enhanced by:

sleep

129

Motor memories are consolidated during repeated cycles of ______________ and _______ sleep.

slow-wave and REM sleep

130

Learning of fine motor tasks greater after 90 minute sleep ______________ following practice.

immediately

131

Which stage of consolidation is sleep dependent, stabilization or enhancement?

enhancement

132

Sequential hypothesis =

memories are consolidated through ordered sequence of non_REM followed by REM sleep (both necessary)

133

Declarative memory -->

SWS or REM

134

Procedural memory -->

stage 2 non-REM or REM

135

Memories likely consolidated off-line through repeated pattern of:

non-REM followed by RM

136

Gains in performance observed after both _________________________________ sleep

night time and daytime

137

Who benefits from sleep?

young healthy adults show:
• increased declarative consolidation with SWS
• procedural consolidation with stage 2 non-REM and REM

138

But, older healthy adults show little off-line sleep-dependent improvement in _____________ learning and _________________ tasks.

spatial learning

fine motor tasks

139

Adults with chronic stroke benefit (from sleep) to:

implicit and explicit task variations

140

In adults with brain injury, mechanisms underlying sleep-dependent consolidation benefits are:

not yet known

141

Clinical applications:
• Conduct PT sessions ____________________________________.
* In a _________________ quiet environment to ensure better sleep
• _______________ following PT sessions
• Assess affects of ________________, ______________ side effects and sleep apnea.

later in day/ in evenings

quiet

Nap

affects of depression, medication side effects...

142

PT school application:

1. workout
2. study
3. sleep
(4. repeat)

143

** Multiple forms of memory, supported by distinct brain system

** Multiple forms of memory, supported by distinct brain system

144

** Short-term memory involves temporary changes in existing neural circuits and neuronal excitability

** Short-term memory involves temporary changes in existing neural circuits and neuronal excitability

145

** Long-term memory involves architectural reorganization of respective memory centers (new protein synthesis and growth)

** Long-term memory involves architectural reorganization of respective memory centers (new protein synthesis and growth)

146

** Cardiovascular exercise enhances memory encoding and consolidation on time-dependent basis

** Cardiovascular exercise enhances memory encoding and consolidation on time-dependent basis

147

** Sleep plays primary role in memory consolidation

** Sleep plays primary role in memory consolidation