Week 5 - Sensation & Perception Flashcards Preview

PSY112 - Brain & Behaviour > Week 5 - Sensation & Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 5 - Sensation & Perception Deck (45):
1

What is Sensation?

The process by which the sense organs (eg eyes, ears, skin) gather information about the environment

2

What is Perception?

The process by which sensory information is selected, organised and interpreted

3

There is no 1:1 correspondence between what (2) things?

physical and psychological activity

4

What is the process of transduction?

Turning environmental energy into neural impulses
Sense receptors transduce stimuli into signals

5

What is the study of Psychophysics?

Study of how we perceive sensory stimuli based on their physical characteristics

6

What is the Absolute Threshold?

The lowest level of a stimulus (on its own) that we can detect 50% of the time
eg a candle 30km away

7

What is Just Noticeable Difference?

Smallest change in intensity of a stimulus we can detect

8

What does JND depend on?
- Level

Level of intensity of a new stimulus
Level of stimulation already present

9

What is Weber's Law?

Regardless of the magnitude of the two stimuli, the second stimulus must differ from the first by a constant proportion for it to be perceived as different
- 1/50 for the average person

10

What is the Signal Detection Theory?

Sensation occurs when we judge whether a stimulus is present or not

11

What 2 processes contribute to signal detection?

Initial sensory process (sensitivity to the stimulus)
Decision process (the individuals readiness to report detecting a stimulus when uncertain

12

What is Attention?

A mental phenomenon of concentration and its shifts in focus

13

What is attention influenced by?

External and internal events

14

What is Selective Attention?

Allows us to select some inputs for further processing and ignore others

15

What does the Cocktail Phenomenon suggest?

That even when we selectively attend to a conversation we are subconsciously monitoring other conversations around us.

16

What are the 2 errors of attention?

inattentional blindness
change blindness

17

What is Inattentional Blindness?

A failure to see something in plain slight

18

What is Change Blindness?

The inability to detect changes in scenes when looking at them

19

What is Divided Attention?

Performing multiple tasks simultaneously

20

Mixing light produces =

whites (additive)

21

Mixing pigments produces =

blacks (subtractive)

22

Brightness =

intensity

23

Hue =

colour

24

What are the 2 processes involved in the eye?

Focussing light on the retina
Transducing the image into nerve signals

25

What is Myopia?

Nearsighted (light focused in front of the rear of the eye)

26

What is Hyperopia

Farsighted (light focused behind the rear of the eye)

27

What are the 2 photoreceptors?

rods and cones

28

What is the role of photo receptors?

Turn light into electrical signals

29

Rods are associated with? (3)

Low light
Monochromatic
Peripheral Vision

30

Cones are associated with what? (3)

Bright light
Colour vision
Central Vision (fine detail)

31

The retina contains what?

Rods and cones

32

Simple cells respond best to which stimuli?

Light of specific orientation at a particular level

33

Complex cells respond best to which stimuli?

Specific orientation but less dependent on location

34

Feature Detectors respond best to which stimuli?

Lines and edges (simplex/complex), lengths of lines, shapes, movement, colour etc

35

What are the 2 theories of colour vision?

Trichromatic Theory
Opponent Process Theory

36

Explain the Trichromatic Theory of colour vision

Colour vision is based on our sensitivity to three primary colours (red, blue, green)
- Consistent with three types of cones in the eyes
- Explains colour blindness

37

Explain the Opponent Process Theory of colour vision

Colour vision is a function of complementary opposing colours
- red vs green
- blue vs yellow
- black vs white

38

What are the 2 treatable causes of blindness?

Cataract and Glaucoma

39

What are the 3 types of colour blindness?

Monochromacy
Dichromacy
Trichromacy (anomalous)

40

What is the most usual cause of colour blindness?

Faulty cone development (can be genetical)
- Far more common in males

41

What can also cause colour blindness?

Physical or chemical damage to the eye, optic nerve or cortical visual processing areas

42

What is Motion Blindness?

Inability to perceive motion (or stitch together the incoming images)

43

What is Visual Agnosia?

Inability to recognise objects, despite normal ability to describe the shape and colour etc

44

What is Prosopagnosia?

Face blindness

45

What are cortically blind (total or partial loss of vision in a normal-appearing eye caused by damage to the brain's occipital cortex) people able to do?

Perform tasks (identify shapes/location) due to the collicular pathway of vision