Wine Chemistry & Faults Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wine Chemistry & Faults Deck (62):
1

List the 5 major components of wine.

Water, alcohol, sugar, acid, phenolic compounds

2

Other compounds that are found in wine what have been aged or sur lie (found in very small amounts) are

Yeast and proteins

3

Water makes up _____% volume of wine.

80%-90%

4

Alcohol makes up ____% volume of wine.

10 - 15%

5

What is the primary alcohol found in wine?

Ethyl alcohol

6

What 3 other types of alcohol are found in wine?

Glycerol, methanol and fusel

7

Acid give wine much of it's

Structure, balance & thirst quenching qualities

8

Acids make up ____% volume of wine

.5 -.75%

9

What are the 6 principal acids found in wine?

Tartaric, malic, citric, lactic, succinic, acetic

10

What is the most prevalent acid found in wine?

Tartaric

11

What acid is the strongest in terms of pH?

Tartaric

12

The sharp tasting acid frequently associated with green apples is

Malic

13

Under ripe and cool climate grapes are typically high in ____ acid.

Malic

14

Which acid exists in such minute amounts that special equipment is required to measure it?

Citric

15

Lactic acid is created in wine by lactic acid bacteria. T or F

True

16

The acid found in most types of vinegar is

Acetic

17

Acetic acid is volatile. T or F

True

18

Acetobactor is the result of a chemical reaction between oxygen &

Ethanol

19

What acid has a sharply bitter and salty taste?

Succinic

20

What are the 3 grape acids?

Tartaric, malic & citric

21

What are the 3 grape fermentation acids?

Lactic, acetic & succinic

22

Total Acidity (TA) refers to

the volume of all acids in the wine.

23

The pH level of a wine represents

the combined chemical strength of the acids present.

24

The combined chemical strength of the acids present in wine is measured by

The pH level

25

The volume of all acids present in wine is measured by

The Total Acidity (TA)

26

Grapes contain ___% to ___% of sugar at harvest

15% - 28%

27

Grapes contain roughly equal amounts of what two sugars?

Fructose and glucose

28

List the 5 phenolic coumpounts found in wine?

Anthocyanins, flavanols, vanillin, tannin, resveratrol

29

Which phen compound gives red wine it's color?

anthocyanins

30

Which phen compound gives white wine it's color?

Flavanol

31

The phen compound that gives big red wines "backbone" is

Tannin

32

Which phen compound is a natural preservative?

Tannin

33

Which aromatic phen compound is found in oak?

Vanillin

34

The phenolics of a grape are concentrated primarlily in its _____ and ______.

Skin and seeds

35

When some phen compounds combine into longer molecule chains it's called

Polymerization

36

List 4 other minor compounds of wine.

Aldehydes, esters, sulfites, dissolved gasses.

37

Oxidized alchohols that are formed when wine is exposed to air are called

Aldehydes

38

The most common aldehyde found in wine is

acetaldehyde

39

Esters are molecules that result in the joining of a _____ and _______.

Acid & alcohol

40

The most common ester found in wine is

ethyl acetate

41

Ethyl acetate is the ester of _______ and ______.

Ethanol and acetic acid

42

In high concentrations ethyl acetate imparts faulty aromas of

nail polish remover, varnish, glue

43

What dissolved gas is routinely found in wine?

Carbon dioxide

44

"Contains Sulfites" must be on US labels that contain more than ______ of sulfur dioxide.

10ppm

45

Wines with a musty, moldy, dank basement, wet cardboard aroma are often found to have what fault.

2,4,6 TCA or cork taint

46

Another term for TCA is

cork taint

47

TCA is a mold. T or F

True

48

Most people can detect TCA at concentrations of ____ to ____ parts per ______.

2 to 7 parts per trillion

49

Wines with the off odor of burning matches is a result of high concentration of

Sulfur dioxide

50

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gives off the odor of

Rotten eggs

51

The odor associated with wine that's sat too long in a barrel or sur lie and absence of oxygen is

Rotten eggs, Hydrogen sulfide

52

Mercaptan is the result of the combination of sulfur and

ethanol

53

Mercaptan smells like

garlic and onions

54

What 2 bacterias can live in wine?

Acetobactor and lactic bacteria

55

The odor of vinegar is _________ acid.

Acetic

56

The odor of rancid butter or spoiled cheeses is ____ acid.

Butyric

57

The odor of sauerkraut or goat is _______ acid.

Lactic

58

The odor of nail polish remover is ______ acid.

Ethyl acetate

59

The odor of crushed geranium leaves is normally caused by

an incomplete malolactic fermentation

60

The odor of band aid, medicinal, horsey or sweat is called

Brett

61

Brett is a yeast. T or F

True

62

Odors occurring in conditions that lack oxygen are termed

Reductive