X - Immune System and Lymphoid Organs Flashcards Preview

Histology > X - Immune System and Lymphoid Organs > Flashcards

Flashcards in X - Immune System and Lymphoid Organs Deck (72)
1

Immediate, nonspecific actions that prevent infections or penetration of the host body

Innate Immunity

2

Immunity: skin, mucous membranes, neutrophils, leukocytes, NK cells

Innate Immunity

3

Immunity: HCl, organic acids, defensins, lysozyme, complement, interferons

Innate Immunity

4

Immunity: acquired gradually by exposure to microorganisms, more specific, slower, B and T cells, antigen presenting cells, memory lymphocytes

Adaptive Immunity

5

Immunity: involved in both innate and adaptive, coordinate cell activities in the immune response

cytokines

6

Cytokines: growth and differentiation factors for leukocyte progenitor cells in bone marrow

GM-CSF, M-CSF

7

Cytokines: stimulation of inflammation and fever

TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-1

8

Cytokines: stimulation of growth in T lymphocytes and NK cells

IL-12

9

Cytokines: growth factors for T helper cells and B lymphocytes

IL-2, IL-4

10

Cytokines: eosinophil proliferation, differentiation and activation

IL-5

11

Cytokines: activation of macrophages

Interferon-γ, IL-4

12

Cytokines: inhibition of macrophages and specific adaptive immune responses

IL-10

13

Cytokines: antiviral activity

Interferon-α, Interferon-β

14

Cytokines: chemokine for neutrophils and T lymphocytes

IL-8

15

Large Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses

antibodies

16

Recognizes a unique part of the foreign target called an antigen

antibodies

17

Each tip of the "Y" of the antibody contains a _____ (lock) that is specific for an _____ (key).

paratope, epitope

18

Antibodies are produced by

plasma cells

19

Immunoglobulins by Amount

G (75-85%), A (10-15%), M (5-10%), E (0.002%), D (0.001%)

20

Immunoglobulins: secretory IG, mucosal areas, gut, respiratory tract, prevents colonization by pathogens, saliva, tears, milk

IgA

21

Immunoglobulins: antigen receptor on B-cells that have not been exposed to antigens, activate basophils and mast cells to produce antimicrobial factors

IgD

22

Immunoglobulins: binds to allergens and triggers histamine release from mast cells and basophils, protects against parasitic worms

IgE

23

Immunoglobulins: provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens, only antibody capable of crossing the placenta to give passive immunity to fetus

IgG

24

Immunoglobulins: expressed on the surface of B-cells (monomer) and in a secreted form (pentamer) with very high avidity, first antibody produced in initial immune response, activates complement

IgM

25

Hypersensitivity: immediate

type I

26

Hypersensitivity: anaphylaxis

type I

27

Hypersensitivity: atopy

type I

28

Hypersensitivity: IgE

type I

29

Hypersensitivity: cytotoxic (antibody-dependent)

type II

30

Hypersensitivity: Goodpasture's Syndrome

type II

31

Hypersensitivity: Erythroblastosis Fetalis

type II

32

Hypersensitivity: IgM, IgG

type II

33

Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex

type III

34

Hypersensitivity: SLE

type III

35

Hypersensitivity: RA

type III

36

Hypersensitivity: Serum Sickness

type III

37

Hypersensitivity: IgG, complement

type III

38

Hypersensitivity: delayed

type IV

39

Hypersensitivity: chronic transplant rejection

type IV

40

Hypersensitivity: Multiple Sclerosis

type IV

41

Hypersensitivity: Mantoux Test

type IV

42

Hypersensitivity: T-cells

type IV

43

T lymphocytes: Thymus

100%

44

T lymphocytes: Bone Marrow

10%

45

T lymphocytes: Spleen

45%

46

T lymphocytes: Lymph Nodes

60%

47

T lymphocytes: Blood

70%

48

B lymphocytes: Thymus

0%

49

B lymphocytes: Bone Marrow

90%

50

B lymphocytes: Spleen

55%

51

B lymphocytes: Lymph Nodes

40%

52

B lymphocytes: Blood

30%

53

Lymphoid Organs: induction of central tolerance preventing autoimmunity

thymus

54

Lymphoid Organs: one of the largest lymphoid organs (70% of all immune cells), tonsils (palatine, lingual, pharyngeal), Peyer's patches, appendix

MALT - Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

55

Lymphoid Organs: completely encapsulated, 400-450 in the body, in-line filters of lymph that defend against the spread of microorganisms and tumor cells, facilitate production of plasma cells secreting non-IgA antibodies

lymph nodes

56

Lymphoid Organs: largest single accumulation of lymphoid tissue, only one involved in the filtration of blood, main site of erythrocyte destruction

spleen

57

Thymus: cortex/medulla

present (distinct)

58

Thymus: lymphoid nodules

absent

59

Thymus: lymhatic vessels

(-) afferents, few efferents

60

Thymus: unique features

Hassall corpuscles in the medulla, epithelial-reticular cells in cortex and medulla

61

MALT: cortex/medulla

absent

62

MALT: lymphoid nodules

present

63

MALT: lymphatic vessels

(-) afferents, (+) efferents

64

MALT: unique features

crypts lined by surface mucosa in tonsils, epithelial M cells in mucosa over Peyer patches

65

Lymph Nodes: cortex/medulla

present

66

Lymph Nodes: lymphoid nodules

in cortex only

67

Lymph Nodes: lymphatic vessels

afferents at capsule, efferent at hilum

68

Lymph Nodes: unique features

thin paracortical region between cortex and medulla, high endothelial venules (HEV)

69

Spleen: cortex-medulla

absent

70

Spleen: lymphoid nodules

in white pulp only

71

Spleen: lymphatic vessels

(-) afferents, efferents in trabeculae

72

Spleen: unique features

minor white pulp component with central arterioles, major red pulp component (splenic cords of Billroth) with sinusoids (RBC removal)