XI - Digestive Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XI - Digestive Tract Deck (167)
1

Tongue Papillae: thin, long, "V"-shaped cones, increased keratinization

filliform

2

Tongue Papillae: most abundant, no taste buds, no gustatory function, mechanical

filliform

3

Tongue Papillae: mushroom-shaped, lightly keratinized, interspersed among filliform papillae

fungiform

4

Tongue Papillae: mostly at the apex and sides of the tongue, innervated by the facial nerve

fungiform

5

Tongue Papillae: 8-12 in number, largest, near sulcus terminalis

circumvallate

6

Tongue Papillae: associated with salivary (Von Ebner's) glands and taste buds, innervated by CN IX

circumvallate

7

Tongue Papillae: ridges and grooves towards the posterior part of the roof of the mouth on lateral margins

foliate

8

Tongue Papillae: innervated by facial nerve (anterior papillae) and glossopharyngeal nerve (posterior papillae), rudimentary in humans

foliate

9

Epithelial cells of the tongue

stratified squamous

10

Tongue Innervation: anterior 2/3 - somatic

CN V (Trigeminal)

11

Tongue Innervation: taste

CN VII (Facial)

12

Tongue Innervation: posterior 1/3 - somatic and taste

CN IX (Glossopharyngeal)

13

Tongue Innervation: motor

CN XII (Hypoglossal)

14

Only muscle of the tongue not innervated by the hypoglossal (XII) nerve

palatoglossus (CN X - Vagus)

15

Parotid Gland: Secretion

serous, α-amylase, proline-rich proteins

16

Parotid Gland: Type

branched acinar

17

Parotid Gland: Innervation

CN IX (Glossopharyngeal)

18

Submandibular Gland: Secretion

serous > mucous, produces 2/3 of saliva, α-amylase, proline-rich proteins, other enzymes

19

Submandibular Gland: Type

branched tubuloacinar with serous demilunes

20

Submandibular Gland: Innervation

CN VII (Facial)

21

Sublingual Gland: Secretion

mucous > serous, mucin, amylase, lysozyme

22

Sublingual Gland: Type

branched tubuloacinar

23

Sublingual Gland: Innervation

CN VII (Facial)

24

70% of saliva is produced by

submandibular gland

25

Salivary gland associated with circumvallate papillae of the tongue

Von Ebner's

26

Layer missing in the esophagus

serosa

27

Cells characteristic of Barrett's Esophagus

goblet cells

28

Partial tear of the esophagus

Mallory-Weiss Tear

29

Full thickness tear of the esophagus, surgical emergency

Boerhaave's Syndrome

30

Treatment for GERD

Nissen's Fundoplication

31

Stomach: Lumen

folds of rugae

32

Stomach: Mucosa Epithelium

simple columnar epithelium, gastric pits or fovea covered with surface mucous cells

33

Stomach Cardia: Gastric Pits

shallow

34

Stomach Cardia: Lamina Propria

cardial glands, secrete abundant mucus

35

Stomach Fundus-Body: Gastric Pits

shallow

36

Stomach Fundus-Body: Lamina Propria

isthmus - parietal cells, neck - mucous cells, base - chief cells and enteroendocrine cells

37

Stomach Pylorus-Antrum: Gastric Pits

very deep

38

Stomach Pylorus-Antrum: Lamina Propria

pyloric glands, secrete abundant mucus

39

Stomach: Muscularis Mucosa

band of smooth muscle

40

Stomach: Submucosa

dense irregular tissue, Meissner's plexus

41

Stomach: Muscularis Externa

inner oblique, middle circular (most abundant in pylorus), outer longitudinal

42

Stomach: Serosa

continuous with the mesenteries (thin loose CT with mesothelium)

43

Gastric Glands: gastric pit

surface mucous cells

44

Gastric Glands: isthmus

parietal cells

45

Gastric Glands: neck

mucous neck cells, parietal cells

46

Gastric Glands: base

chief cells, enteroendocrine / enterochromaffin / argentaffin / APUD cells

47

Gastric Glands: mucus

mucous neck cells

48

Gastric Glands: HCl

parietal cells

49

Gastric Glands: pepsinogen

chief cells

50

Gastric Glands: intrinsic factor

parietal cells

51

Gastric Glands: serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)

enterochromaffin cells (EC)

52

Gastric Glands: substance P

enterochromaffin cells (EC)

53

Gastric Glands: somatostatin

enterochromaffin cells (D)

54

Gastric Glands: bicarbonate

surface mucous cells

55

Gastric Glands: gastrin

enterochromaffin cells (G)

56

Gastric Glands: histamine

enterochromaffin-like cells

57

Site where digestive processes are completed and where the products of digestion are absorbed

small intestines

58

Small Intestines: Mucosa

simple columnar epithelium with villi and goblet cells

59

Small Intestines: Lamina Propria

crypts of Lieberkuhn, Paneth cells

60

Small Intestines: Submucosa

Meissner's plexus (submucosal)

61

Small Intestines: Muscularis Externa

inner circular layer, Auerbach's plexus (myenteric), outer longitudinal layer

62

Duodenum: Mucosa

Brunner's glands

63

Duodenum: Lamina Propria

absent plicae circulares in the first part, (-) Peyer's patches

64

Duodenum: Submucosa

Brunner's glands

65

Jejunum: Lamina Propria

poorly developed plicae circulares and villi, (-) Peyer's patches

66

Jejunum: Submucosa

(-) Brunner's glands

67

Ileum: Mucosa

M cells

68

Ileum: Lamina Propria

plicae circulares, (+) Peyer's patches (MALT)

69

Ileum: Submucosa

(-) Brunner's glands

70

Diagnostic of duodenum, in the mucosa and submucosa, mucus rich secretion (pH 8.1-9.3), neutralizes chyme entering the duodenum and the pylorus

Brunner's Glands

71

Columnar column cells, apical end has striated brush border, numerous microvilli that greatly increase luminal surface area

Enterocytes

72

Enterocytes produce

lactate, sucrase, maltase, peptidase, enterokinase

73

Enterocytes absorb

carbohydrates, protein, lipids, vitamins, calcium, iron

74

Crypts of Lieberkuhn: high rate of mitosis, replace surface absorptive cells and goblet cells every 3-6 days

stem cells

75

Crypts of Lieberkuhn: secrete lysozyme, phospholipase A, defensins

Paneth cells

76

Enteroendocrine Cells: small intestines, secretin, promotes pancreatic & biliary bicarbonate & water secretion, inhibits gastric acid secretion & stomach emptying

S cells

77

S Cells: Location

small intestines

78

S Cells: Hormone

secretin

79

Secretin: Promotes

pancreatic & biliary bicarbonate & water secretion

80

Secretin: Inhibits

inhibits gastric acid secretion & stomach emptying

81

Enteroendocrine Cells: small intestines, CCK, promotes pancreatic enzyme secretion & gallbladder contraction, inhibits gastric acid secretion

C cells

82

C Cells: Location

small intestines

83

C Cells: Hormone

Cholecystokinin

84

Cholecystokinin: Promotes

pancreatic enzyme secretion & gallbladder contraction

85

Cholecystokinin: Inhibits

inhibits gastric acid secretion

86

Enteroendocrine Cells: ileum & colon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) - promotes insulin secretion, inhibits gastric acid secretion & sense of hunger, peptide YY - promotes water & electrolyte absorption in large intestine, inhibits gastric acid secretion

L cells

87

L Cells: Location

ileum & colon

88

L Cells: Hormones

glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY

89

Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1): Promotes

insulin secretion

90

Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1): Inhibits

gastric acid secretion & sense of hunger

91

Peptide YY: Promotes

water & electrolyte absorption in large intestine

92

Peptide YY: Inhibits

gastric acid secretion

93

Enteroendocrine Cells: duodenum & jejunum, gastrin inhibitory peptide (GIP), inhibits gastric acid secretion

K cells

94

K Cells: Location

duodenum & jejunum

95

K Cells: Hormone

gastrin inhibitory peptide (GIP)

96

Gastrin Inhibitory Peptide (GIP): Inhibits

gastric acid secretion

97

Enteroendocrine Cells: pylorus, duodenum & pancreatic islets, somatostatin, inhibits secretion from other DNES cells nearby

D cells

98

D Cells: Location

pylorus, duodenum & pancreatic islets

99

D Cells: Hormone

somatostatin

100

Somatostatin: Inhibits

secretion from other DNES cells nearby

101

Enteroendocrine Cells: stomach, small intestines & large intestines, serotonin & substance P, promotes gut motility

EC cells

102

EC Cells: Location

stomach, small intestines & large intestines

103

EC Cells: Hormones

serotonin & substance P

104

Serotonin: Promotes

gut motility

105

Substance P: Promotes

gut motility

106

Enteroendocrine Cells: small intestines, motilin, promotes gut motility

M cells

107

M Cells: Location

small intestines

108

M Cells: Hormone

motilin

109

Motilin: Promotes

gut motility

110

Enteroendocrine Cells: ileum, neurotensin, inhibits gastric acid secretion

N cells

111

N Cells: Location

ileum

112

N Cells: Hormone

neurotensin

113

Neurotensin: Inhibits

gastric acid secretion

114

Intestines: large valvular flaps protruding into the lumen, circular folds on mucosa and submucosa

valves of Kerkring, plicae circulares, valvulae conniventes

115

Intestines: finger-like projections of the mucosa

villi

116

Intestines: microscopic cellular protrusion on the apex of cells

brush border (microvilli)

117

80% of bile is absorbed in

terminal ileum

118

Colon: smooth, no plicae circulares or intestinal villi except in the rectum, crypts of Lieberkuhn, numerous goblet cells, MALT

mucosa

119

Colon: fatty layer

submucosa

120

Colon: Muscularis Externa

inner circular, outer longitudinal in 3 separate longitudinal bands (taenia coli)

121

Colon: forms small pouches of fatty tissue (appendices epiploicae)

serosa

122

Thickened wall due to lymphoid follicles, few crypts, no villi, no taenia coli

appendix

123

Most common cause of appendicitis in adults

fecalith obstruction

124

Most common cause of appendicitis in chicken

lymphoid hyperplasia

125

Anal Canal: Length

3-4 cm

126

Rectoanal Junction Epithelium

simple columnar → stratified squamous

127

Anal Canal: Longitudinal folds of mucosa and submucosa

anal columns

128

Anal Canal: inner circular layer of muscle

internal anal sphincter

129

Anal Canal: voluntary sphincter

external anal sphincter

130

Mixed exocrine and endocrine gland producing both digestive enzymes and hormones, retroperitoneal

pancreas

131

Amount of alkaline pancreatic juice secreted into the duodenum per day

1.5 L/day

132

Neutralizes acidic chyme from the stomach

bicarbonate

133

Establishes pH for optimal activity of pancreatic enzymes: proteases, α-amylase, lipases, nucleases

bicarbonate

134

The exocrine pancreas is regulated mainly by

CCK, secretin

135

Largest percentage of liver that can be safely resected without causing liver failure

80%

136

The liver is divided into 8 anatomic segments based on

hepatic venous drainage

137

75% of blood flow to the liver is provided by

portal vein

138

Pain in hepatitis and other inflammatory liver disease is caused by

stretching of Glisson's capsule

139

Surrounded by a thin capsule that extends into the parenchyma dividing it into lobules

liver

140

Secretion of bile, synthesis and endocrine secretion into blood of major plasma proteins (albumin), conversion of AA into glucose, detoxification and conjugation of toxins and drugs

liver

141

AA deamination producing urea, storage of glycogen, triglycerides, vitamin A and other fat soluble vitamins, removal of effete erythrocytes, storage of iron in complexes with ferritin

liver

142

Functional unit of the liver

liver lobule

143

Liver Lobule: Structure

hexagonal with central vein, surrounded by 3-6 portal triads (venule, arteriole, bile ductule)

144

Portal Triad

venule, arteriole, bile ductule

145

Filled with cords of hepatic parenchymal cells, hepatocytes which radiate from the central vein and are separated by vascular sinusoids

liver lobule

146

Liver: vascular spaces lined by fenestrated endothelial cells, sparse basal lamina and reticular fibers, Kuppfer cells

sinusoids

147

Liver: space between the endothelium and the cord filled with plasma, Ito cells

space of Disse / perisinusoidal space

148

Tiny passage formed between hepatocytes

bile canaliculi

149

Liver: principal parenchymal cells, large, polyhedral, large centrally located nucleus, extensive reticular fibers holding cells together

hepatocytes

150

Liver: sinusoids, liver macrophages

Kuppfer cells

151

Liver: perisinusoidal space of Disse, stores vitamin A

Ito cells / stellate cells / lipocytes

152

Liver Acinus 1: Location

periportal - around portal triad

153

Liver Acinus 1: Blood Flow

abundant oxygen and nutrients

154

Liver Acinus 1: Necrosis

liver pathology, eclampsia/pre-eclampsia

155

Liver Acinus 2: Location

mid-zone

156

Liver Acinus 2: Blood Flow

intermediate

157

Liver Acinus 2: Necrosis

yellow fever

158

Liver Acinus 3: Location

centrilobular - around central vein

159

Liver Acinus 3: Blood Flow

low oxygen and nutrients

160

Liver Acinus 3: Necrosis

ischemic injury, R-sided heart failure

161

Biliary epithelium

tall columnar cells with microvilli except terminal ducts (cuboidal)

162

The gallbladder does not have

muscularis mucosae

163

Pockets in the gallbladder mucosa into the muscularis layer

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinus

164

Most common type of gallbladder CA

adenocarcinoma

165

Seen in 95% of patients with gallbladder adenoCA

gallstones

166

Most common area where biliary-enteric fistula occurs

duodenum

167

Ascending bacterial infection that causes partial or complete obstruction of the bile duct

Ascending Cholangitis