XIV - Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XIV - Endocrine System Deck (77):
1

Adenohypophysis: main cellular part of anterior pituitary

pars distalis

2

Adenohypophysis: contains MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone)

pars intermedia

3

Adenohypophysis: small collar of cells around infundibular stalk, contains portal venules

pars tuberalis

4

Neurohypophysis: main cellular part of posterior pituitary

pars nervosa / infundibular process

5

Neurohypophysis: connects posterior pituitary to brain

infundibular stalk

6

Neurohypophysis: region of nervous tissue above the stalk, forms floor of the 3rd ventricle

median eminence

7

Surgical procedure for a sellar lesion

Transnasal Transsphenoidal Hypophysectomy

8

Anterior Pituitary: resting/reserve cells, degranulated acidophils and basophils

chromophobes

9

Anterior Pituitary: GH and prolactin secreting cells

acidophils

10

Anterior Pituitary: TSH, ACTH, LH & FSH secreting cells

basophils

11

Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System: supplies median eminence & infundibulum

primary capillarties/plexus

12

Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System: secretes RH & IH

median eminence & infundibulum

13

Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System: supplies pars tuberalis

portal venules

14

Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System: transports RH & IH to the pars distalis

portal venules

15

Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System: supplies pars distalis

secondary capillaries

16

Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System: site where RH and IH leave the anterior pituitary to go to the systemic blood system

secondary capillaries

17

Most abundant cell in the adenohypophysis

somatotropes

18

Most common functional pituitary tumor

prolactinoma

19

Most common presenting symptom of prolactinoma

amenorrhea

20

Posterior Pituitary: origin of large unmyelinated axons

hypothalamic neurosecretory bodies

21

Posterior Pituitary: secretes ADH

supraoptic bodies

22

Posterior Pituitary: secretes oxytocin

paraventricular bodies

23

Posterior Pituitary: neuroglial cells, supporting framework

pituicytes

24

Posterior Pituitary: dilatations of axon terminals filled with vesicles containing ADH and oxytocin

Herring bodies

25

Vertebral level of adrenal glands

T11

26

Adrenal Cortex: basophils arranged in cords of columnar or pyramidal cells, weakly responsive to ACTH

zona glomerulosa

27

Adrenal Cortex: outermost layer

zona glomerulosa

28

Adrenal Cortex: secretes aldosterone

zona glomerulosa

29

Adrenal Cortex: largest area

zona fasciculata

30

Adrenal Cortex: pale staining cells in cords with foamy appearances due to lipid droplet accumulations (spongicytes)

zona fasciculata

31

Adrenal Cortex: secretes cortisol

zona fasciculata

32

Adrenal Cortex: middle layer

zona fasciculata

33

Adrenal Cortex: eosinophilic cells with large large nuclei arranged in cords, smaller, less spongy than ZF cells

zona reticularis

34

Adrenal Cortex: innermost layer

zona reticularis

35

Adrenal Cortex: secretes weak androgens

zona reticularis

36

Condition caused by excessive production of corticosteroids by the adrenal glands

Cushing's Syndrome

37

Failure of the adrenals to produce sufficient cortisol results to

Addison's Disease

38

Adrenal disorder that presents hypertension

pheochromocytoma

39

Adrenal Medulla: embryonal origin

neuroectoderm (neural crest cells)

40

Adrenal Medulla: weakly basophilic columnar cells which are modified post-ganglionic neurons that have lost their dendrites and axons

chromaffin cells

41

Adrenal Medulla: Secretion

epinephrine > norepinephrine

42

Adrenal Medulla: Disorder

Pheochromocytoma

43

Most common location of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma is an area near the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery to the aortic bifurcation

organ of Zuckerkandl

44

Drug used during the pre-operative management of pheochromocytoma

Phenoxybenzamine

45

Drug used during surgery of pheochromocytoma

Phentolamine

46

Insulinoma Triad

fasting hypoglycemia, severely low blood glucose concentration during symptomatic periods, relief of symptoms after glucose administration

47

Most common clinically significant congenital anomaly of the pancreas

Pancreas Divisum

48

Most common type of pancreatic carcinoma

ductal adenocarcinoma

49

Most frequently altered oncogene in pancreatic cancer

K-Ras

50

Most frequently inactivated tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic cancer

P16 gene

51

Pancreas: endocrine structure

islets of Langerhans

52

Pancreas: exocrine structure

pancreatic acini

53

Pancreas: light-staining, large forming spherical clusters, direct contact with blood

islets of Langerhans

54

Pancreas: secretes glucagon

alpha cells

55

Pancreas: secretes insulin

beta cells

56

Pancreas: secretes somatostatin

delta cells

57

Pancreas: dark-staining, small, berry-like clusters, pyramidal, drained by ducts into the duodenum

pancreatic acini

58

Pancreas: secretes digestive enzymes

pancreatic acini

59

Most common location of pancreatic CA

pancreatic head

60

Occasional 5th artery supplying the thyroid, branch of the aorta

Thyroidea ima

61

Most common symptom of goiter

pressure sensation in the neck

62

Structural and functional units of the thyroid

follicles

63

Thyroid Follicle Epithelium: Inactive

simple squamous-cuboidal

64

Thyroid Follicle Epithelium: Active

tall columnar

65

Secretory product of thyroid follicular cells, extracellular storage

colloid

66

Main component of thyroid colloid

thyroglobulin

67

Produce thyroglobulin

follicular cells (thyroid epithelial cells)

68

Produce calcitonin, scattered along the basal membrane, not in contact with thyroid follicles

parafollicular cells

69

Diffuse thyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia of follicular cells with scalloping of margins

Graves' Disease

70

The nuclei of the thyroid cells impart an optically clear or empty appearance or ground glass appearance

Papillary CA

71

Parathyroid Glands: produce PTH, small, polygonal, dark-staining, contain lakes of glycogen giving them a water clear appearance

chief cells

72

Parathyroid Glands: unknown function, large, light-staining, fewer in number, presents at puberty

oxyphil cells

73

Most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism

parathyroid adenoma

74

Most common cause of secondary hyperthyroidism

renal failure

75

Most common cause of symptomatic hypercalcemia

malignancy

76

Hallmark of hypocalcemia

tetany

77

Calcified structures commonly seen in the pineal gland

corpora arenacea