What is an antigen?
More broadly, anything that can induce specific ______ (can be bound by __ or ___ receptors)
- what else are they called?
What five substances do B cell receptors (antibodies) recognize?
What do Th and Tc cell receptors recognize?
What is an allergen?
- any substance that induces antibody generation
- immune, B, T
- peptides, sugars, lipids, nucleic acids, hormones
- peptides that have been "processed" or degraded
- an antigen that induces an allergic reaction (but shouldn't)
- _____ are smaller potions of large molecules that have the structure ____ by the ____ or _____ receptor. (also called an ______)
- A given macromolecule is recognized in ____. That is, each contains many ____ individually able to be bound by ___ or _____. (Some epitopes are repeated several times - this is called _____ - these can be the same or different _____)
- Antigens are the molecules recognized by the immune system - ____ are the sites within antigens to which the _____ binds.
- epitopes, bound, antibody, T cell, antigenic determinant
- parts, epitopes, antibody, T cell receptors, multivalency, epitopes
- epitopes, antigen receptor
- Antigen specific cells (B cells and T cells) recognize ____ in different ways. B cells have ____ (called _____) that can bind directly to the native antigen. T cells require _____ of the epitope by an _____ (_______) molecule.
Different lymphocytes/receptors can recognize _____ epitopes on the same antigen
- epitopes, receptors, antibodies, presentation, MHC, major histocompatibility molecule
- What may affect how antibodies can bind to the marcomolecule?
- antibody epitopes are limited to those ____ to the antibody, and ____ can exclude access of antibodies to ____ epitopes
- In theory, each 8-15 residues can constitute a _______, but the number of antigenic determinants per antigen is much _____ than would be theoretically be possible. The antigenic determinants are limited to those portions of the antigen that can bind to _____ molecules. What does this mean?
- What is the difference between a linear epitope and a discontuous epitope?
- Does which epitopes are recognized depend on the individual?
- the spatial arrangement of epitopes on a single antigen
- accesible, crowding, all
- separate antigenic determinant, less, MHC, This is why there can be differences in the responses of different individuals
- The AA of epitope are all in a line in linear, is discontinuous folding is involved (so formed by tertiary structure) and AA are discontinuous
What are small molecules that are not normally immunogenic, but become antigens when linked to another structure (carrier)? How?
- ______ are common due to the tendency for them to bind larger proteins. Give two examples
- haptens, linkage forms a new epitope that is now big enough to be bound by antibody or T cell receptors
- drug allergies, penicillin binds to albumin, urushiol is toxic agent of poison ivy (converted to a reactive compound which reacts with skin proteins)
(Blood Group Antigens)
Basically why can't you mix blood?
- all humans make O antigen, depending on which blood type is present this molecule attaches in different ways and makes different epitopes - some of which may be seen as antigens by the host system
(Hapten Immune Responses)
What three types of antigens will haptens generate?
- against the carrier, against the hapten, against the new epitope generated by the hapten-carrier linkage (right where the two bind (hapten and carrier))
(T independent Ag)
- Some antigens are immunogenic enough that ____ are not required to activate _____ for antibody production
- These are usually very ____ molecules -- have repeating ______ (multivalent or _____ Ag) -- cross-link ______ (_____) on the surface of a _____
The responses can occur very ____ in an immune response and assist in _____ of certain pathogens
- When someone says you got a T independent Ag you know its ______, its got repeated ________, and doesn't need ___ to get an antibody response
- T cells, B cells
- complex -- epitopes, polymeric -- B-cell receptors (antibodies), B cell
- in vivo
- early, host clearance
- big, multivalent epitope, T cells
What makes a good (something that produces a high response) antigen (four things)?
How good are each of these things?
- Simple polysaccharides
- complex carbohydrates
- nucleic acids
- size (large - more epitopes), stability (needs to stick around - but can't be so stable that it doesn't break up cause you need to get t-cells involved), complexity, foreigness
- excellent if greater than 1000 Da
- poor - readily degraded in cells
- good, esp when bound to proteins
- poor unless bound to proteins
- poor unless bound to proteins
(What influences Immunogenicity?)
- genetics -
- There is a difference in the ability to _____ epitopes (which is done by _____)
- Age - _____ is paricular is deficient in _____ and _____ (_____) individuals
Also three environmental factors - what are they?
- present, MHC (where the variance is)
- specific immunity, neonates, senescent (old)
- Dose, Route of Exposure, Adjuvants
if you can't read this - look at ppt slide - page 7
- What is the process by which one epitope is similar enough to trigger a response against another epitope, even on very different molecules?
What does this result in?
What are three examples?
- Binding pockets for an antibody are really specific for a specifc epitope - but can also bind epitopes that are pretty similar (look at picture Michael)
- cross-reactivity (basically two antigens share and epitope)
- specific immunity against apparently unrelated antigens
1. blood antigens - bacteria contain glycoproteins with carbohydrate side chains similar to those found on RBC
2. Mycobacterium species in soil can trigger antibodies that also bind Mycobacterium bovis
3. An ocular protein in horses is similar to one found in Leptospira
- route of ____ changes immune response
- Antigens encountered in tissues are taken up by _____ (and _____), then moved to _______. (tend to elecit _____ antibodies)
Ig = ______
G = ______
- dendritic cells, macrophages, draining lymph nodes, IgG isotype
- a type of immunoglobin
- Ag encountered on the mucosal surfaces are generally taken up through specialized ___ or via ____ that extend through the epithelial lining. (tend to elicit ___ and ____ isotype antibodies)
- M cells, dendritic cells, IgA, IgE
- Antigens are usually processed into _____ (___) that are presented to ____ to initiate a specific _____.
- Exogenous (outside the cell) Ags are presented by _____ molecules
- Endogenous (inside the cell) Ags are presented by _____ molecules
- this determines what type of ____ gets involved
What is the degradation of proteins into peptides that can bind MHC molecules for presentation to T cells?
What is the display of antigens as peptide fragments bound to MHC molecules on the surface of a cell?
Which cells are highly specialized and can display processed antigen as peptide fragments on the cell surface?
- smaller fragments (epitopes), T cells, immune response
- MHC class II
- MHC class I
- T cell
- antigen processing
- antigen presentation
- antigen-presenting cells
(Ag Processing) anything that is endogenous gets processed differently than something that is exogenous
- _____ are broken down into smaller pieces, some of which are presented to _____
- This interaction uses surface molecules encoded by the _____ (_____).
- The pathway for Ag breakdown, and which class of ___ molecule is used, depends on the ____ of the Ag.
- Ags in _____ are broken down and use MHC class ____.
- Ags from outside cell use MHC class _____.
- T cells are kind of like the _____, is this an antigen that is _____?
- antigens, T cells
- MHC, major histocompatibiliy complex
- MHC, origin
- cytosol, one
- judge, foreign
What is something that is already in your body (proteins, etc) that causes an immune response?
- Normally the ability for the immune system to recognize self-proteins is _____. If errors occur, _____ and reactive _____ can be generated against self antigens, called _____. Three examples?
This usually requires a ______ for disease
- blocked, antibodies, T cells, autoantigens -- mitochondria, sperm, nucleic acids
- host genetic
What can sometimes induce autoimmunity?
What are two mechanisms of this (+ explain each= example)?
What causes auto immune in horse eyes?
- Insulin receptor has an 8-10 AA stretch that is the same as an epitope in _____ virus - this can cause _____
1. disruption of cell tissue barrier (causes release of sequestered self antigen - sympathetic opthalmia)
2. molecular mimicry (production of cross-reactive antibodies or T-cells -- rheumatic fever, diabetes, ultiple sclerosis)
- papyloma, molecular mimcry
(Types of antigens assocaiated with pathogens or infections)
- Where are each of these antigens found?
- cell wall
- presented on the surface of _______ by MHC class __ and ___ molecules
- not found on ____ cells
- tumor celles, one, two
- super antigens are usually secreted ____ that are highly ____ and _____ for T cells
- Do they require prior processing in order to bind T cell receptor?
- How do they work?
- Does there need to be an epitope for binding?
- exotoxins, mitogenic, stimulatory
- cross-linking MHC and TCR to over-stimulate T cells and drive hyperinflammation
- no - tricks the T-cells into thinking there is a response that needs to be made
(Determinants vs. Antigens)
- The ____ immune system recognizeds many chemical structures or signatures without first processing a larger molecule. Determinants recognized by components of the _______ system differ from those recognized by the _____ system.
- _____, and the _______ recognize discrete determinants (_____) and demonstrate a high degree of specificity.
- In contrast, components of the innate immune system recognize ____ molecular patterns found in _____ but not in the host. Thus, they lack a high degree of ____ found in the _______. They are sometimes called _____. They are not antigens.
- innate, innate (nonspecific) immune, adaptive (specific) immune
- Antibodies, B and T cell receptors, epitopes
- broad molecular patterns, pathogens, specificity, adaptive immune system, Pathogen Associated Molecular Patters