(Passive Immunity Occuring in the fetus and newborn)
1. Upon birth, animals pass from what to what?
2. Epithelial surfaces of the newborn (eg skin and gastrointestinal tract) rapidly develop a what?
3. At birth, the immune system is not fully developed or experienced. What is initially responsible for pathogen clearance?
4. What from the moth complement the newborn's immune system?
1. sterile to non-sterile environment
2. complex microbial flora
3. the innate immune system
4. passive immunity
1. What is the tranfer of antibodies and leukocytes from the mother to the fetus and the newborn? What type of protection does this provide?
2-4. What are the three types?
1. passive immunity; temporary immune protection
2. Transfer of maternal antibodies in the blood to the fetus
3. Transfer of maternal antibodies in the colostrum and milk to the newborn
4. Absorption of colostrum leukocytes
(Transfer of maternal antibodies in the blood to the fetus)
1. Depends on the structure of what?
2. Does it occur in all animals?
1. the placenta
2. no (nonruminants > ruminants)
1-3. What are the three types of placenta?
1. Maternal blood is in direct contact with the placenta? Allows for what to transfer to the fetus blood stream? mostly in what? Newborn's IgG levels same or different as mother's?
1. hemochorial placenta; maternal IgG (but not IgA, IgM, or IgE) antibodies; humans and primates; same
1. Placental epithelium is in contact with the ednothelium of maternal capillaries. What precent of maternal antibodies transferred to fetus? In what?
1. endotheliochorial placenta; 5-10 %; cats and dogs
1. Placental epithelium is in contact with uterine tissue? Passage of what is totally prevented? in what?
1. epitheliochorial placenta; maternal immunoglobulin; ruminants and pigs
(Transfer of maternal antibodies in the colostrum and milk to the newborn)
1. What consists of accumulated secretions from the mammary glands over the last few weeks of pregnancy? What else does it consists of? Rich in what antibodies? May contain cytokines that do what?
2. As lactation progresses, this is what colostrum changes into. Antibodies in the milk originate from where? Also locally produced by what?
1. colostrum; proteins transferred from blood; IgG, IgA, and IgM; promote immune system development in the newborn
2. milk; blood; B cells in the mammary glands
(note the concentrations)
(ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRUM IMMUNOGLOBULINS)
1. What is initially low in the newborn digestive tract? to do what?
2. Colostral/milk immunoglobulins are absorbed through the intestinal lining via what? to reach what?
1. protease activity; reduce antibody degradation
2. via epithelial Fc receptors to reach the circulation
(ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRUM IMMUNOGLOBULINS cont)
1. When is intestinal permeability the highest? What causes it to decline rapidly?
2. System protection by maternal immunoglobulins converts to what?
3. Animals's own immune system begins to do what?
4. Unsuckled animal have very low what?
1. after birth; intestinal cells of newborn replaced by more mature cels
2. Intestinal immunity
3. provide systemic immunity
4. circulating immunoglobulins
1. Maternal antibodies provide newborns with what?
2. Maternal antibodies act on newborn's immune system during what? have long life influence?
3. What transfer mother's immunological experience to the newbord?
1. temporary immune protection
2. critical imprinting period; yes
3. Anti-idiotypic antibodies (learn the diagram below)
(absorption of colostrum leukocytes)
1. colostrum is rich with what in some animals?
2. colostral lymphocytes pierce what to reach circulation?
3. How many lymphocytes in milk?
1. lymphocytes (swine and cattle = 0.5 * 10^6 to 1*10^6 lymphocytes/ml)
2. gut wall
3. very few
best time to immunize?
C - want as little maternal antibodies as possible and maximal function by young things immune system