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What factors affect an immune response?

- age, nutritional status, host genetics, drugs, confounders/co-infections, stress, smoking


What type of immunology is self from non-self? Self from altered self? Damaged self?

- infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites)
- neoplasia
- injury


Is innate immunity specific? Adaptive?

- not specific
- specific


What are the humoral components of Innate immunity?

- complement
- cytokines/chemokines
- antimicrobial peptides


What are the cellular components of innate immunity?

- monocytes (macrophages, dendritic cells)
- natural killer cells
- granulocytes (mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils)


What are the humoral components of the adaptive immunity?

- antibodies


What are cellular components of the adaptive immunity?

- B cells
- T cells (helper t cells, cytotoxic cells, regulatory T cells)


What does innate immunity recognize? How about adaptive?

- proteins or entire pathogen
- epitopes (AA sequences on pathogens)


What is immunity mediated by? Where an immunocytes derived?

- organs, cells, and molecules
- bone marrow during hematopoesis


Three synonyms for innate and acquired?

- natural, existing, non-clonal
- acquired, induced, clonal


What are the three components of the immune system?

- Soluble components, Cellular components, tissues


What are the soluble components of the immune system released by? What do they do? What can they have direct action on?

- immune cells, fibroblasts, epithelial cells, hepatocytes, other cells
- Affect differentiation and activities of immune cells
- invading pathogens or tumors


What types of responses are carried out by the cellular components of the immune system?

- innate response and adaptive response


What types of organs are there in the tissues of the immune system?

- primary and secondary organs


Where do the cells of the immune system originate? Where do they migrate through? Where do they then mature and function?

- bone marrow
- blood and lymphatic system
- peripheral tissues


All cells of the immune system arise from what? What drive differentiation down each pathway?

- bone marrow precursors
- cytokines


What can be quickly distributed to the tissues in response to an inflammatory stimulus?

- neutrophils


Both innate and adaptive immunity rely on what? What is another name for these?

- white blood cells
- leukocytes


Where do leukocytes originate? In very young fetus?

- bone marrow from hematopoietic stem cells
- liver and yolk sac


Depending on the signal (receptor binding and cytokines) encountered, hematopoietic stem cells differentiate along which two pathways?

- myeloid or lymphoid pathway


What are neutrophils aka? Are the they the most cellular component of innate immunity? What are they responsible for? What do nuclei look like? Life span? Difference in species?

- PMNs (polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocyte)
- yes
- phagocytosis and digestion of bacteria and particles
- multi-lobed nuclei and cytoplasmic granules (stain with neutral dyes)
- 2 days
- (20-30% in ruminants, 65-75% in carnivores)


What are the three types of granulocytes? What do they deal with mainly? Which one is associated with histamines?

- eosinophil, basophil, mast cell
- parasites (larger parasites)
- mast cells


What is the most important phagocytic cell? What are some activites?

- macrophages
- regulating homeostatic processes and wound healing


What are mononuclear cells found in the blood and all tissues? What does maturation/differentiation depend on? Life span?

- macrophages
- tissue factors
- months (in certain tissues)


What is the role of macrophages? What do they secrete? What do they present to what?

- role in phagocytosis and killing of bacteria
- pro-inflammatory cytokines
- present processed antigens to T cells


How abundant are dendritic cells? What tissues are they found in? Where do they migrate to?

- found in low numbers in tissues
- skin, intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive mucosae
- to draining lymph nodes following pathogen uptake


What are the most important antigen presenting cell? What do they provide a link between? What are the two origins?

- dendritic cells
- innate and adaptive immunity
- lymphocytic or myeloid origin


Where do lymphocytes arise from? Where do B cells mature? Where do T cells differentiate? What is their shape? Can they be distinguished visually?

- lymphoid progenitor in bone marrow or bursa (leave bone marrow when partially mature)
- lymph nodes
- differentiate in thymus
- small and round
- no


What is used to distinguish lymphocyte classes?

- surface markers


What do lymphocytes mediate?

- adaptive (antigen-specific) immunity


Where are lymphocytes found? What happens once they are selected?

- in blood and lymphoid organs
- undergo clonal replication


Are natural killers cells T cells (lymphocytes)? Do NK cells have different antigen receptors than B and T cells? Do they require thymus for maturation? What % of blood lymphocytes do they account for?

- no (but are of this lineage)
- yes
- no
- 15% (most in secondary lymphoid organs)


What is the main function of NK cells?

- kill tumor cells and virally-infected cells (possess an Fc receptor - allows them to bind to many types of antibodies)


Adaptive or Innate?
1. Immediate vs. Delayed Response
2. Receptors Rearrange vs. Pre-formed molecules
3. Clonal expansion of cell subsets vs. specificity inherited in the genome
4. Response identical each exposure vs. response improves over time
5. mediated by mo, neutro, NK cells vs. T cells and B cells
6. Antigenic memory vs. no antigenic memory

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