1. exudate is indicative of what? morphologic appearance is very helpful in what?
1. acute inflammation; diagnosing disease, cause of inflammation
1. What is the process of directed leukocyte migration within tissues called?
2. What group of chemicals is the movement controlled by?
3. What does the leukocyte basically follow to get to where it is going?
3. a chemical gradient
1. What is a cytokine that is involved in leukocyte migration?
2. How many groups of chemokines? separated by what?
3. He says to know the nomenclature as well... on the ipad (also know that CC and CXC are the two most common chemokine groups)
2. four groups; cysteine residues found in the protein backbone (highly conserved)
1. Why are there so many factors involved in controlling leukocyte migration?
1. because it is really specific - lots of leukocyte populations - don't want them all going to same spot - you also don't want to many neutrophils (cause they can cause too much damage)
1. What is the primary role of the neutrophil when it gets into tissue? They are professional whats?
2. What are neutrophils two ways of killing stuff?
3. What enzyme converts oxygen into unstable metabolites?
1. to kill and eat stuff; professional phagocytes
2. oxygen dependent killing (Reactive oxygen species) and oxygen independent killing (enzymes break down whatever is engulfed))
3. NADPH oxidase
(Defects in Neutrophil Function)
(Defects of Adhesion)
1. LFA-1 and Mac-1 subunit defects lead to impaired adhesion - what is this called? occurs in what?
(Defects of chemotaxis/phagocytosis)
2. Microtubule assembly defect leads to impaired locomotion and lysosomal degranulation - what is this called? occurs in what?
(Defects of Microbial Activity)
3. Deficiency of NADPH oxidase that generates superoxide, therefore no oxygen-dependent killing of bacteria - what is this called?
1. leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1; occurs in humans, cattle, dogs
2. Chediak-Higashi syndrome; humans and cattle
3. chronic granulomatous disease
(Inflammation - pathophysiological effects)
1. What are 3 types of excessive inflammation?
2. 1 type of re-occuring inflammation?
3. 4 types of chronic inflammation?
1. systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, anaphylactic shock
3. persistent infection, autoimmunity, graft rejection, asthma
1-3. What are the three outcomes of acute inflammation?
1.1 if we can't regenerate the tissue what will we get? what is this called?
1.2 if we can't resolve what caused the acute inflammatory response?
2. What are the three things that make each acute and chronic inflammation unique?
1. inflammation resolves and returns back to normal state (regeneration of tissue)
1.1 scarring or fibrosis; organization
1.2 progresses to chronic inflammation
2. Acute inflammation (short duration, exudate, neutrophil accumulation)
Chronic inflammation (prolonged duration, scarring, lymphocyte and macrophage accumulation)
(Regeneration organization (fibrosis/scarring))
1. The return to normalcy of tissue requires what two things?
2. If the connective tissue framework and/or parenchymal cells are excessively destroyed then the inflammatory lesion is essentially bonded together by what or what? What is this called?
1. a) an intact connective tissue framework
b) the parenchymal cells (essential cells required for organ function) must be labile (eg epithelial) or stable (hepatocytes, but not permanent (eg cardiac muscle cells))
2. fibroblast cells and collagen; organization (scarring/fibrosis)