(2 Classes of T cells)
1. CD8+ cells are what kind of T cells? What do they kill?
2. CD4+ cells are what kind of T cells? activate what? depending on what?
1. cytotoxic T-cells; target cells infected with viruses or display neoplastic (tumorous) antigens bound to MHC class I molecules
2. are inflammatory T cells; activate macrophages, b cells, or neutrophils; pattern of cytokine expression
What does CD in CD4 and CD8 stand for?
cluster of differentiation
(T cells - antigen specific lymphocytes)
1. Do they recognize foreign antigens only? in the context of what?
2. Do several types of T cells exist?
3. Produced where? educated where?
4. Mature lymphocytes are found throughout the body, but are centralized in what three things?
5. What determines each T cells specificity for a single epitope?
6. Each TCR is associated with either what or what?
7. So whether it is CD4 or CD8 wiil be decided where?
8. Where will what type of CD4 cell be determined?
1. yes; MHC of the same haplotype
3. bone marrow; thymus
4. lymph nodes, spleen, and other secondary lymphoid tissue
5. T cell receptor
6. CD4 or CD8
8. in the periphery when it encounters an antigen
take a gander at this - think he will go into this stuff in detail so don't worry about memorizing entire table right now - on ipad
1. T cells recognize antigens via what?
2. TCR generates T cell diversity by a mechanism that does what?
3. Are TCR expressed on the T cell surface and secreted?
4. Each T cell expresses 10-30K receptors of identical or different specificity?
5. Does TCR bind antigen in the context of the same MHC molecule (class I or II)?
6. Consists of an antigen specific hetero-dimer of what kinds of chains?
7. The TCR complex is associated with what multi-subunit complex (which is not Ag specific nor variable) but serves to transmit signals if TCR is engaged?
1. the t cell receptor
2. uses somatic recombination of germline DNA
3. only expressed on surface
6. either alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains
look at this
1. What happens to the CD3 molecule?
and this (but don't memorize!)
1. it gets phosphorylated and sends signal to nucleus
1. Are T cell receptor and antibody gene rearrangement similar?
2. What are three regions on the T cell receptor?
3. antigen binding pocket is made up of what?
2. constant regions, hinge regions, and variable (antigen) binding regions
3. junction of the alpha and beta chain
1. Can collection of all T cell recepotrors theoretically recognize all epitopes?
2. Is it approximately equal to diversity generated by antibodies?
3. Do they have V, D, and J regions?
1. The alpha chain can choose from how many variable regions? the beta?
2. Rearrangement of gene segments occurs where? gives t-cell receptors a single specificity?
3. Only the TCR from 1 chromosome is expressed - what is this called again?
4. Does any further somatic rearrangement occur once successfully rearranged?
5. So how do T cells differ from antibody molecule in this regard?
1. 100; 30
2. thymus; yes
3. allelic exclusion
5. no somatic hypermutation, t-cell receptor never secreted
Just like antibodies
1. T cells have multiple germ line gene segments
2. binding pocket made up of junction of alpha and beta chain
3. have imprecise joining
4. and random addition of nucleotides
BUT NO SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION
(T cell receptor)
1. alpha chains made out of what gene segments?
2. beta chains?
3. Can T cell receptor gene rearrangment occur several times if one rearrangment is non-functional? Is DNA in between lost each time?
1. V and J
2. V, D, and J
3. yes, yes
this is a pretty good graph
1. Does T cell education in thymus occur in presence of antigen?
2. Is it an antigen-specific immune response?
3. which section of thymus is thicker with T cells trying?
4 where do succesful ones make it and what effect doest his have on appearance?
4. medulla, makes it look lighter
1. Does T-cell maturation in the thymus required antigen presentation? What is this referred to as sometimes?
2. What occurs if class I presentation is missing?
3. If they recognize MHc class 1?
4. MHc class 2?
1. yes; educating
2. CD8+ T cells cannot be selected for, an vice-versa
3. only cd8 t cells mature
4. only cd4 t cells mature
1. Earliest T cells to enter the thymus are found where?
2. As they mature into double postitive thymocytes - where do they go?
3. What contains only mature, single-positive T-cells which will enter the bloodstream?
1. subcapsular region of the cortex
2. deeper in the cortex
3. the medulla
What happens to thymocytes that are able to recognize MHC class 1 or 2 too avidly are what?
what does this accomplish?
- thymocytes capable of responding to self peptide antigens are removed (negative selection or central tolerance)