(Vaccination vs. Immunization)
1. what is deliberately giving the antigen so as to eleict an immune response?
2. What is providing the body with specific defeneses agaisnt an antigen?
1. defined as what?
2. Short or long lived? (memory?)
3. can they induce hypersensitivy reaction?
4. can they transfer other infectious agents?
5. Does passive immunization = vacciation?
1. protection of one individual via transfer of Ab (or B cells or T cells) from another individual
2. short-lived (no memory)
1. what is it when passed from mother fetus/neonate through placenta or colostrum?
2. What when Abs from one individual are given to another?
1. natural passive immunity
2. artficial passive immunity
1. Active immunization = ?
2. administration of Ag to elicict what?
3. uses what to generate protection
4. duration of protection? memory cells formed?
5. is boosting possible?
2. adaptive immune response
3. individual's immune system
4. prolonged; yes
1. What is the main difference between Live and Kiiled vaccine? what is the advantage?
2. memory cell production? how long immunity?
3. do they replicate? what are you giving? good T cell production?
1. live vaccine will actually replicate; longer exposure to antigens
2. very good yes; long-term immunity
3. no; a whole bunch of antigens; not really
1. Attenuation is achieved by growing the organism in vitro until what happens?
2. What can be used to directly remove or mutate virulence genes such that virulence is directly attenuated?
1. it loses virulence
1. Essentially a vax should be what?
1. harmless, but seen as an enemy by the immune system
(Types of Vaccines)
1. can be what or what?
2. attenuated what?
(subunit of component vaccines)
3. aka what?
1. killed or inactivated
2. attenuated live strain
1. mostly induce what only? since they can't get into cytoplasm, tough to induce what?
2. Because the organism doesn't multiply, these vaccines require large amount of what?
3. protection in shorter of longer term?
4. induction of memory B cells?
6. usually include what to boost immune reponse?
7. very little what put onto mucosal surfaces?
2. can it cause disease or illness in immunosuppressed?
1. antibodies only; CTL responses
1. more stable storage
1. Inactivation or killing the organism can be done several ways, but what must be maintained?
2. Is heat treating useful?
3. chemical inactivation - is it common? common chemiicals used? but what must be done?
4. Can inactivated be live organisms? What are they unable to do? do these often give better immunization?
1. antigenic integrity
2. no (denatures proteinss)
3. yes; formaldehyde of B-propriolactone; must be removed to avoid toxicity
4. yes; replicate; yes
1. most induce what kinds of repsonss? viral vaccines also tend to induce what?
2. Live vaccines usually contain what kind of organism?
3. it will cause what, but not what?
1. Th1 and Th2; strong CTL responses
3. infection, not disease
(Subunit or Component Vaccines)
1. these vaccines contain only what from an infectious agent rather than the what?
2. What is the huge disadvantage of this?
1. infectious agent; whole organism
(Component or conjugate vaccines include those in which an antigen is complexed with a carrier protein to increase immunogenecity)
2. only stimulating immunity against a single protein which may not give full protection (must carefully choose antigen to target)
1. what is it basically?
2. why is it called toxoid then?
3. Can be made by what or what to denautre it?
4. so what is it then?
1. a subunit vaccine
2. because just the toxin is being targeted (which is released by pathogen)
3. chemical inactivators (formalin) or heat
4. an inactivated toxin
(just read this)
1. Plasmids carry the what?
2. Injection in muscle cells results in what? examples?
3. How many proteins are you getting immunity against? What other one is this like?
1. genetic information for the antigen
2. temporary production of the encoded protein; MHC class 1 presentation; cell-mediated immunity
3. one; subunit
(Needleless Injection Systems)
1-4. What are the four positives?
5. The negative?
1. no risk of disease transfer between animals
2. better dispersement of antigen
3. no "sharps" waste
4. no risk of needle breakage in carcass
5. more expensive
1. These are used to do what?
2. Thus called what?
3. Very useful in what?
4-5. These vaccines typically elicit identical immunity as a live vaccine, but have... what two options?
1. Differentiate infected from vaccinated animals
3. eraication purposes
4. an additional protein not found in pathogen
5. are missing a protein not essential to pathogen growth but is recognized by immune system
(Differential Vaccines for eradication)
(related to marker vaccines it would seem)
just read this slide
take a gander at this
1. What are substances that enhance the immunogenicity of an antigen?
2. Most proteins are poorly what by themselves? why?
3-5. What are three ways they work?
6-7. general way of saying what they do better?
2. immunogenic; degraded quickly - poor induction of B and T cells
3. convert soluble proteins into particulate matter
4. stimulate cytokine production by APC
5. depot effect to maintain Ag half life
6. longer exposure
7. stronger reaction
read 1 and 3 in graph - but don't memorize
1. some adjuvants are looking at cytokines, experimenting with agonists for what? What does this accomplish?
1. the toll like receptor; makes APC better at presenting antigen
(Route of Exposure)
1. Much work has gone into maximizing protection while minimizing ease of application. Thus vaccines can be given
just read that slide
(and this one)
1. what does it mean that a vaccination fails?
2. intereference with what?
3. improper application of what?
4. physiologic state of recipiecent
5. host genetics
6. pathogen strain what?
7. extremely what patholgen strain encountered?
8. insufficient time for what to occur?
1. poor Ab titer of no protection
2. maternal antibodies
3. the vaccine
6. antigenic variation
8. immune response
(Timinig is evertyihg!)
1. Why must you wait until the maternal antibodies are gone?
2. vaccinations in face of an outbreak may be what?
3. boosters must not occur to what?
1. gotta let the kid mount its own response
2. too late
this slide basically shows that the higher titers a pup has at time of vaccination (from mother) the lower response you will get from the vaccine