03: Classical Civilization: India Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03: Classical Civilization: India Deck (27):
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Buddha

-Creator of major Indian and Asian religion; born in 6th century BCE as son of local ruler among Aryan tribes located near Himalayas; became an ascetic; found enlightenment under bo tree; taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires for all earthly things.
-Founded Buddhism, one of the great world religions
-Buddhism influenced much of the world, especially East Asia

1

Alexander the Great

-Successor of Phillip II; successfully conquered Persian Empire prior to his death in 323 BCE; attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures.
-Brought Hellenistic influences to India
-Changes the SPICEs of classical India

2

Himalayas

-Mountain region marking the northern border of the Indian subcontinent; site of the Aryan settlements that formed small kingdoms or warrior republics.
-Separated India from East Asia but linked India to Middle East via passes.
- Influenced India's SPICEs, particularly culture and economy.

3

Monsoons

-Seasonal winds crossing Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia during summer bring rains.
-Brought the needed moisture for India's farming economy
-Culture was affected by the monsoons because people had to adapt.

4

Aryans

-European nomadic pastoralists who replaced Harappan civilization; militarized society.
-Brought agriculture and iron tools to India
-Completely changed all the SPICESs of India

5

Sanskrit

-The sacred and classical Indian language
-First literary language of India
-Most of what we know of early India was written in sanskrit.

6

Vedas

-Aryan hymns originally transmitted orally but written down in sacred books from the 6th century BCE.
-Told us about much of preclassical Indian culture.
-Able to learn about early Indian history.

7

Mahabharata

-Indian epic of war, princely honor, love, and social duty; written down in the last centuries BCE; previously handed down in oral form.
-Shows more settled agricultural society 7 better organized political units
-Showed development of SPICEs in India

8

Ramayana

-On of the great epic tales from classical India; traces of adventures of King Rama and his wife, Sita; written 4th to 2nd centuries BCE.
-Shows more settled agricultural society 7 better organized political units
-Showed development of SPICEs in India

9

Varnas

-Clusters of caste groups in Aryan society; four social castes-Brahmans (priests), warriors, merchants, and peasants; beneath four Aryan castes was a group of socially untouchable Dasas.
-Structure of society in India still lasting through today
-Controlled most SPICEs

10

Untouchables

-Low social caste in Hindu culture; performed tasks that were considered polluting---- street sweeping, removal of human waste and tanning.
-Lowest caste in Indian society to this day.
-Helped influence how India works socially.

11

Indra

-Chief deity of the Aryans; depicted as a colossal, hard-drinking warrior
-Main god of early Indian culture.
-Shows what early Indian culture believed in and was centered around.

12

Chandragupta Maurya

-Founder of Maurya dynasty; established 1st empire in Indian subcontinent; 1st centralized government since Harappan
civilization.
-First ruler to unify most of subcontinent.
-Brought about first example of widespread unity and politics.

13

Mauryan

-Dynasty established in Indian subcontinent in 4th century BCE following invasion by Alexander the Great.
-First dynasty to unify most of subcontinent.
-Brought about first example of widespread unity and politics.

14

Ashoka

- Grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire.
-Spread Buddhism through India and sent out missionaries
-Missionaries sent caused the widespread adaptation and conversion of Buddhism in China

15

Dharma

-The caste position and career determined by a person's birth; Hindu culture required that one accept one's social position and perform occupation to the best of one's bility in order to have a better situation in the nest life.
-Brought unity to people.
-Allowed the differing Indian peoples to live in relative harmony.

16

Kushans

-People from Kush, an African state that developed along the Nile c. 1000 BCE; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries
-One ruler converted to Buddhism and promoted it in India
-Lessened Buddhism's influence in India because of the association of foreign rule.

17

Guptas

-Dynasty that succeded the Kushans in the 3rd century CE, built empire that extended to all but the southern regions of Indian subcontinent; less centralized than Mauryan empire.
-Brought unity to subconinent once again with great impact.
-Brought greatest period of political stability in India.

18

Kautilya

-Political advisor to Chandragupta Maurya; one of the authors of Arthashastra; believed the the scientific application of warfare.
-Wrote important treatise on politics.
-Influences India's political SPICE.

19

Gurus

-Originally referred to as Brahmans who served as teacher for the princes of the imperial court of the Guptas.
-Helped formalize Hinduism.
-Helped bring common beliefs to many Indians.

20

Vishnu

-The Brahman, later Hindu, god of sacrifice; widely worshipped.
-Manifested the aspects of brahman.
-Helped further Hindu formalization.

21

Shiva

-Hindu god of destruction and reproduction;worshipped as the personification of cosmic forces of change.
-Manifested the aspects of brahman.
-Helped further Hindu formalization.

22

Reincarnation

-The successive attachment of the soul to some animate form according to merits earned in previous lives.
-Helped keep the caste system in place.
-Kept lower castes from rebelling from the unfair system of classes.

23

Nirvana

-The Buddhist state of enlightenment, a state of tranquility.
-The state that Buddhists strive to achieve.
-Brought lower caste members to Buddhism because it was not as daunting and as long a task.

24

Kamasutra

-Written by Vatsayana during Gupta era; offered instructions on all aspects of life for higher-caste males, including grooming, hygiene, etiquette, selection of wives, and lovemaking.
-Showed much of what was important to Classical Indian society.
-Showed the cultural and social SPICEs of Classical India.

25

Stupas

-Stone shrines built to house pieces of bone or hair and personal possessions said to be relics of the Buddha; preserved Buddhist architectural forms.
-Some indian art that was not destroyed later in time
-shows indian culture SPICE

26

Scholar-Gentry

-Chinese Class created by the marital linkage of the local land-holding aristocracy with the office-holding shi; superseded shi as governors of China.

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