10: A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 10: A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe Deck (28):
1

Middle Ages

-The period in western European history from the decline and fall of the Roman Empire until the 15th century.
-Period of gradual recovery after shock of Rome's collapse
-Key characteristics of European civilization emerged from this Era.

1

manoralism

-System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.

3

manoralism

-System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
-Economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages
-A hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.

4

serfs

-Peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages.
-Labors during Middle Ages.
-Backbone of economy.

5

moldboard

-Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils; a technological innovations of the medieval agricultural system.
-Permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils.
-A needed technological innovation of the medieval agricultural system.

6

Carolingians

-Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in 10th century.

6

three-field system

-System of agricultural cultivation by 9th century in western Europe; included one-third in spring grains; one-third fallow.
-Able to allow land to restore nutrients.
-Improved productivity.

8

Carolingians

-Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in 10th century.
-Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in 10th century.
-Political SPICE.

9

Martel, Charles

-Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
-Responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732.
-Ended Muslim threat to western Europe.

9

Holy Roman emperors

-Emperors in northern Italy and Germany following split of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor c. 10th century; failed to develop centralized monarchy in Germany.

10

vassals

-Members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a feudal lord in return for military service and loyalty.

11

Holy Roman emperors

-Emperors in northern Italy and Germany following split of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor c. 10th century; failed to develop centralized monarchy in Germany.
-Emperors in northern Italy and Germany following split of Charlemagne's empire.
-Failed to develop centralized monarchy in Germany.

13

William the Conquerer

-Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; extended tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy.
-Extended tight feudal system to England.
-Established centralized monarchy.

13

parliaments

-Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals; found in England, Spain, Germany, and France.

15

parliaments

-Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals; found in England, Spain, Germany, and France.
--Bodies representing privileged groups.
-Institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals.

16

three estates

-The three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries; church, nobles, and urban leaders.
-The three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries.
-Social SPICE.

17

Hundred Years War

-Conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453; fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights versus the emerging claims of national states.
-Conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453.
-Fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights versus the emerging claims of national states.

18

Urban II

-Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
-Called First Crusade in 1095.
-Shows the church isn't as peaceful as people want you to think.

19

Gregory VII

-Pope during the 11th century who attempted to free church for interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI over practice of lay investors.
-Pope during the 11th century who attempted to free church for interference of feudal lords.
-Quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI over practice of lay investors.

20

investiture

-Practice of state appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory VII attempted to ban the practice of lay investiture, leading to war with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.
-Practice of state appointment of bishops.
-Pope Gregory VII attempted to ban the practice of lay investiture, leading to war with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.

21

Abelard, Peter

-Author of Yes and No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
-University scholar who applied logic to problems of theology.
-Demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.

22

Bernard of Clairvaux

-Emphasized the role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
-Emphasized the role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God.
-Successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.

23

Aquinas, Thomas

-Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of several Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God.
--Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning.
-Believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God.

24

scholasticism

-Dominant medieval philosophical approach; so-called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on use of logic to resolve theological problems.
-Dominant medieval philosophical approach.
-Shaped medieval thinking.

25

Gothic

-An architectural style developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external supports on main walls.
-An architectural style developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe.

26

Hanseatic League

-An organization of cities in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
-An organization of cities in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
-Encouraged trade and spread of ideas/culture in Europe.

27

guilds

-Sworn associations of people in the same business or craft in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship; often established franchise within cities.
-Sworn associations of people in the same business or craft in a single city.
-Regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship; often established franchise within cities.

28

Black Death

-Plague that struck Europe in 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure.
-Significantly reduced Europe's population.
-Gave living serfs mobility!!!

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