19: Early Latin America Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 19: Early Latin America Deck (42):
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Ferdinand of Aragon

Along with Isabella of Castile, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Isabella created united Spain; responsible for recon quest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.

1

Isabella of Castile

Along with Ferdinand of Aragon, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Ferdinand created united Spain; responsible for recon quest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.

2

Caribbean

First area of Spanish exploration and settlement; served as experimental region for nature of Spanish colonial experience; encomienda system of colonial management initiated here.

4

Hispaniola

First island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on second voyage to New World; Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World.

5

encomienda

Grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.

6

encomendero

The holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay a tribute or provide labor.The encomendero was responsible for their integration into the church.

7

Las Casas, Bartolome de

Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of the Native American population of the Spanish colonies; opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights.

8

Cortez, Hernan

Led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan.

9

Moctezuma II

Last independent Aztec emperor; killed during Hernan Cortez's conquest of Tenochtitlan.

10

Mexico City

Capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.

11

New Spain

Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica; included most of central Mexico; based on imperial system of Aztecs.

12

Coronado, Francisco Vazquez de

Leader of Spanish expedition into northern frontier region of New Spain; entered what is now United States in search of mythical cities of gold.

13

Valvida, Pedro de

Spanish conquistador; conquered Araucanian Indians of Chile and established city of Santiago in 1541.

14

mita

Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; and essential aspect of Inca imperial control.

15

Potosi

Mine located in upper Peru (modern Bolivia); largest of New World silver mines; produced 80 percent of all Peruvian silver.

16

Huancavelica

Location of greatest deposit of mercury in South America; aided in American silver production; linked with Potosi.

17

haciendas

Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.

18

consulado

Merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver received in return.

19

galleons

Large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis for convey system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion.

20

Treaty of Tordesillas

Signed in 1494 between Castile and Portugal;clarified spheres of influence and rights of possessions in New World; reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal; granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain.

21

letrados

university-trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; juridical core of Spanish colonial bureaucracy; exercised both legislative and administrative functions.

22

Recopilacion

Body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish possessions in New World; basis of law in the Indies.

23

Council of the Indies

Body within the Castilian government that issued all laws and advised king on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World.

24

viceroyalties

Two major divisions of Spanish colonies in New World; one based in Lima; the other in Mexico City; direct representatives of the king.

25

viceroys

Senior government officials in Spanish America. They rules as direct representatives of the king over the principal administrative units or viceroyalties. They were usually high ranking Spanish nobles with previous military or governmental experience. The Portuguese also used viceroys who resided in Goa for their possessions in the Indian Ocean, and then after the mid Seventeenth century their colony in Brazil.

26

audiencia

Royal court of appeals established in Spanish colonies of New World; there were 10 in each viceroyalty; part of colonial administrative system; staffed by professional magistrate.

27

de la Cruz, Sor Juana Inez

Author, poet, and musician of New Spain; eventually gave up secular concerns to concentrate on spiritual matters.

28

Cabral, Pedro Alvares

Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil.

29

capitaincies

Strips of land along Brazilian coast granted to minor Portuguese nobles for development; enjoyed limited success in developing the colony.

30

paukistas

Backwoodsmen from Sao Paulo in Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during the 17th century.

31

Minas Gerais

Region of Brazil located in mountainous interior where gold strikes were discovered in 1695; became location for gold rush.

32

Rio de Janeiro

Brazilian port; close to mines of Minas Gerais; importance grew with gold strikes; became colonial capital in 1763.

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sociedad de castas

American social system based on racial origins; Europeans or whites at top, black slaves or Native Americans at bottom, mixed races in middle.

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peninsulares

People living in the New World Spanish colonies but born in Spain

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Creoles

Whites born in the New World; dominated local Latin American economies and ranked just beneath peninsulares.

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amigos del pais

Clubs associations dedicated to improvement and reform in Spanish colonies; flourished during the 18th century; called for material improvements rather than political reform.

37

War of the Spanish Succession

Resulted from Bourbon family's succession to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons, loss of some lands, grants of commercial rights to English and French.

38

Charles III

Spanish enlightened monarch; ruled from 1759 to 1788; instituted fiscal, administrative, and military reforms in Spain and its empire.

39

Galvez, Jose de

Spanish minister of the West Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate Creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies; created intendants for local government.

40

Marquis of Pombal

Prime minister of Portugal from 1755 to 1776; acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil; expelled Jesuits; enacted monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy.

41

Comunero Revolt

One of popular revolts against Spanish colonial rule in New Granada (Columbia) in 1781; suppressed as a result of divisions among rebels.

42

Amaru, Tupac

Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.

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