32: Latin America: Revolution and Reaction into the 21st Century Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 32: Latin America: Revolution and Reaction into the 21st Century Deck (14):


Party of the Institutionalized Revolution; dominant political party in Mexico; developed during the 1920's and 1930's; incorporated labor,peasants, military, and middle-class sectors; controlled other political organizations in Mexico.



Guerrilla movement named in honor of Emiliano Zapata; originated in 1994 in Mexico's southern state of Chiapas; government responded with a combination of repression and negotiation.


Juan Jose Arevalo

Elected president of Guatemala in 1944; began series of socialist reforms including land reform; nationalist program directed against foreign owned companies such as United Fruit Company.


United Fruit Company

Most important foreign economic concern in Guatemala during the 20th century; attempted land reforms aimed at United Fruit caused U.S. intervention in Guatemalan politics leading to ouster of reform government in 1945.


Fulgencio Batista

Dictator of Cuba from 1934 to 1944; returned to presidency in 1952; ousted from government by revolution led by Fidel Castro.


Fidel Castro

Cuban revolutionary; overthrew dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1958; initiated series of socialist reforms; came to depend almost exclusively on Soviet Union.


Ernesto "Che" Guevara

Argentine revolutionary; aided Fidel Castro in overthrow of Fulgencio Batista regime in Cuba; died while directing guerrilla movement in Bolivia in 1967.


Liberation Theology

Combined Catholic theology and socialist principles in effort to bring about improved conditions for the poor in Latin America in 20th century.


Salvador Allende

President of Chile; nationalized industries and banks; sponsored peasant and worker expropriations of lands and foreign-owned factories; overthrown in 1973 by revolt of Chilean military with the support of the
United States.


Sandinista Party

Nicaraguan socialist movement named after Augusto Sandino; successfully carried out socialist revolution in Nicaragua during the 1980's.


Augusto Sandino

Led a guerrilla resistance movement against U.S. occupation forces in Nicaragua; assassinated by Nicaraguan National Guard in 1934; became national hero and symbol of resistance to U.S. influence in Central America.


Banana Republics

Term given to governments supported or created by the United States in Central America; believed to be either corrupt or subservient to U.S. interests.


Good Neighbor Policy

Established by Franklin D. Roosevelt for dealing with Latin America in 1933; intended to halt direct intervention in Latin American politics.


Alliance for Progress

Begun in 1961 by the United States to develop Latin America as an alternative to radical political solutions; enjoyed only limited success; failure of development programs led to renewal of direct intervention.

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