11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion Deck (21):
1

Indian

-Misnomer created by Columbus referring to the indigenous peoples of New World; implies social and ethnic commonality among Native Americans that did not exist; still used to apply to Native Americans.
-Implies social and ethnic commonality among Native Americans that did not exist.
-Still used to apply to Native Americans.

2

Toltec culture

-Succeeded Teotihuacan culture in central Mexico; strongly militaristic ethic including human sacrifice; influenced large territory after 1000 C.E.; declined after 1200 C.E.
-Strongly militaristic ethic including human sacrifice.
-Influenced large territory after 1000 C.E.; declined after 1200 C.E.

3

Topiltzin

-Religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs in 10th century; dedicated to god Quetzalcoatl; after losing struggle for power, went into exile in the Yucatan peninsula.
-Religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs in 10th century.
-Struggled for power with another faction but lost.

4

Quetzalcoatl

-Toltec deity; Feathered Serpent; adopted by Aztecs as major god.
-Toltec deity.
-Adopted by Aztecs as major god.

5

Tenochtitlan

-Founded c. 1325 on marshy island in Lake Texcoco; became center of Aztec power; joined with Tlacopan and Texcoco in 1434 to form a triple alliance that controlled most of central plateau of Mesoamerica.
-Center of Aztec power.
-Joined with Tlacopan and Texcoco in 1434 to form a triple alliance that controlled most of central plateau of Mesoamerica.

6

Tlaloc

-Major god of Aztecs; associated with fertility and the agricultural cycle; god of rain.
-Major god of Aztecs.
-Culture of Aztecs.

7

Huitzilopochtli

-Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god.
-Central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare.
-Large part of Aztec culture, ie human sacrifice.

8

Nezhualcoyotl

-Leading Aztec king of the 15th century.
-Wrote hymns to "lord of close vicinity," an invisible creative force that supported all the gods.
-Created type of almost monotheism that never took off.

9

chinampas

-Beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs.
-System of irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs.

10

pochteca

-Special merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items.
-Special merchant class in Aztec society.
-Culture and economy.

11

calpulli

-Clans in Aztec society, later expanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors.
-Clans in Aztec society.
-Controlled important things such as distributing land to heads of households and organizing labor gangs and military units in times of war.

12

ayllus

-Households in Andean societies that recognized some form of kinship; traced descent from some common, sometimes mythical ancestor.
-Households in Andean societies.

13

Pachacuti

-Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca.
-Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471.
-Launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca.

14

Twantinsuyu

-Word for Inca Empire; region from present day Columbia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina.
-Word for Inca Empire.

15

split inheritance

-Inca practice of descent; all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendants for support of cult of dead inca's mummy.
-Inca practice of descent.
-Created self-perpetuating need for expansion.

16

Temple of the Sun

-Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas.
-Inca religious center located at Cuzco.
-Center of state religion.

17

tamboos

-Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies to move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages.
-Way stations used by Incas.
-Helped improve movement across empire.

18

mita

-Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
-Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion.
-Essential aspect of Inca control.

19

Inca socalism

-A view created by Spanish authors to describe the Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
-Image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
-How Europe's idea of Inca Empire was formed.

20

yanas

-A class of people within Inca society removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the inca or the Inca nobility.
-A class of people within Inca society removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers.

21

quipu

-System of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records.
-Inca replacement for writing system.

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