21: The Muslim Empires Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 21: The Muslim Empires Deck (27):
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Safavid dynasty

Originally a Turkic nomadic group; family originated in Sufi mystic group; espoused Shi'ism; conquered territory and established kingdom in region equivalent to modern Iran; lasted until 1722.

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Mughal Empire

Established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty; became weak after rule of Aurangzeb in first decade of 18th century.

2

Ottomans

Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Balkans; unified under Mehmed I; captured Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of Arab world.

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Mehmed II

Ottoman Sultan called the "Conquerer"; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire.

4

Janissaries

Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century.

5

vizier

Ottoman equivalent of the Abbasid wazir; head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after 5th century often more powerful than sultan.

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Sail al-Din

Early 14th-century Sufi mystic; began campaign to purify Islam; first member of Safavid dynasty.

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Red Heads

Name given to Safavid followers because of their distinctive headgear.

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Isma'il

Sufi commander who conquered city of Tabriz in 1501; first Safavid to be proclaimed shah or emperor.

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Chaldiran

Site of battle between Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Safavids severely defeated by Ottomans; checked western advance of Safavid Empire.

10

Abbas the Great

Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology.

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imams

According to Shi'ism, rulers who could trace descent from the successors of Ali.

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mullas

Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi;ism.

13

Isfahan

Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city laid out according to shah's plan; example of Safavid architecture.

14

Nadir Khan Afshar

Soldier-adventurer following fall of Safavid dynasty in 1722; proclaimed himself shah i 1736; established short-lived dynasty in reduced kingdom.

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Babur

Founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530.

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Humayan

Son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556; died shortly thereafter.

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Akbar

Son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to created new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India.

18

Din-i-Ilahi

Religion initiated be Akbar in Mughal India; blended elements of the many faiths of the subcontinent; key to efforts to reconcile Hindus and Muslims in India, but failed.

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sati

Ritual in India of immolating surviving widows with the bodies of their deceased husbands.

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purdah

Seclusion in their homes imposed on women.

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Aurangzeb

Mughal emperor who succeeded Shah Jajan known for his religious zealotry.

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Taj Mahal

Most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India; originally built as a mausoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal.

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Nur Jahan

Wife of Jahangir; amassed power in court and created faction of male relatives who dominated Mughal empire during later years of Jahangir's reign.

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Mumtaz Mahal

Wife of Shah Jahan; took an active political role in Mughal court; entombed in Taj Mahal.

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Marattas

Western Indian peoples who rebelled against Mughal control early in 18th century.

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Sikhs

Sect in northwest India; early leaders tried to bridge differences between Hindu and Muslim, but Mughal persecution led to anti-Muslim feeling.

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