04: Classical Civilizations in the Mediterranean and Middle East Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 04: Classical Civilizations in the Mediterranean and Middle East Deck (30):
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Cyrus the Great

*Established massive Persian Empire by 550 BCE, successor state to Mesopotamian empires.
*Formed the Persian Empire.
*Persia one of the largest and most influential classical civiliations.

1

Zoroastrianism

*Animalist religion that saw material existence as battle between forces of good and evil; stressed the importance of moral choice; righteous lived on after death in "House of Song"; chief religion of Persian Empire.
*Chief religion of Persian Empire.
*Strongly affected Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

2

Olympic Games

*One of the pan-Hellenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competition and ritual celebration.
*United the usually divided city-states.
*Olympic games still are going today (though there was a long intermission and they're somewhat different).

3

Pericles

*Athenian political leader during 5th century BCE; guided development of Athenian Empire; died during early stages of Peloponnesian War.
*Able to restrain more aggressive views of Athenian democrats.
*Able to bring logic to Athenian politics in tumultuous times.

4

Peloponnesian Wars

*Wars from 431 to 404 BCE between Athens and Sparta for dominance in southern Greece; resulted in Spartan victory but failure to achieve political unification of Greece.
*Main powers of Greece fought against each other.
*Brought disunity that made Greece easier to take over.

5

Philip II

*Ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 BCE; founder of centralized kingdom; later conquered rest of Greece, which was subjected Ti Macedonian authority.
*Founded centralized kingdom
*Brought the Hellenistic Period

6

Hellenistic Period

*The culture associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests; often seen as the combination of Greek culture with eastern political forms.
*Trade flourished and important scientific centers were established.
*Influenced many other cultures.

7

Alexandria, Egypt

*One of the cities founded by and named for Alexander the Great; site of ancient Mediterranean's greatest library; center of literary studies.
*One of the greatest learning centers of the ancient Mediterranean.
*Helped increase scientific advancements in classical Mediterranean civ.

8

Roman Republic

*The balanced constitution of Rome from c. 510 to 47 BCE; featured an aristocratic Senate, a panel of magistrates, and several popular assemblies.
*One of the political structures of Classical Rome.
*Influenced many governments today including the US'.

9

Punic Wars

*Fought between Rome and Carthage to establish dominance in the western Mediterranean; won by Rome after three separate conflicts.
*Started Rome's strong military orientation.
*Military tendenciec controlled most of Rome's history.

10

Carthage

*Originally a Phoenician colony in northern Africa; became a major port and commercial power in the western Mediterranean; fought the Punic Wars with Rome for dominance of the western Mediterranean.
*Player in the Punic Wars
*Helped start Rome's aggressive military career.

11

Hannibal

*Great Carthaginian general during the Second Punic War; successfully invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome; finally defeated at Battle of Zama.
*Strong Carthaginian general.
*Brought Carthage to many victories during Punic Wars

12

Caesar, Julius

*Roman general responsible for conquest of Gaul; brought army back to Rome and overthrew republic; assassinated in 44 BCE by conservative senators.
*Ended the traditional institutions of the Roman state.
*Brought the end of the Roman Republic.

13

Augustus Caesar

*Name given to Octavian following his defeat of Marc Antony and Cleopatra; first emperor of Rome.
*First emperor of Rome.
*Established basic structures of Roman Empire.

14

Diocletian

*Roman emperor from 248 to 395 CE; restored later empire by improving administration and tax collection.
*Slightly restored empire from decline.
*Improved Economic and Political SPICEs if only for a short time.

15

Constantine

*Roman emperor from 312 to 337 CE; established second capital at Constantinople; attempted to use religious force of Christianity to unify empire spiritually.
*Made Christianity legal in the Roman Empire.
*Gave Christianity to boost it needed to become

16

Polis

*City-state form of government; typical of Greek political organization from 800 to 400 BCE.
*Greece's form of government for 400 years.
*Influenced many important political traditions of Greece and other governments.

17

Direct Democracy

*Where people participate directly in assemblies that make laws and select leaders, rather then electing representatives.
*Greece's government in the Classical Era.
*Influenced many governments of today including the US.

18

Senate

*Assembly of Roman aristocrats; advised on policy within the republic; one of the early elements of the Roman constitution.
*Most important legislative body in Rome.
*Basically controlled all of Rome during the Republic.

19

Consuls

*Two chief executives or magistrates of the Roman republic; elected by an annual assembly dominated by aristocracy.
*Leaders of Rome with primary executive power.
*The head-honchos of Roman politics.

20

Cicero

*Conservative Roman senator; Stoic philosopher; one of great orators of his day; killed in reaction to assassination of Julius Caesar.
*Wrote much about politics and expanded on them.
*Influenced Roman politics.

21

Aristotle

*Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world.
*Stressed importance of moderation and balance in human behavior.
*Shaped the Greek way of thinking.

22

Stoics

*Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery.
*Ethical system from the Hellenistic period.
*Influenced Greece and other's thinking.

23

Socrates

*Athenian philosopher of later 5th century BCE; tutor of Plato; urdged rational reflection of moral decisions; condemned to death for corrupting minds of Athenian youth.
*Created Socratic principle of rational inquiry by means of skeptical questioning.
*Greatly influenced later Greek thinking and it's heritage to later societies.

24

Sophocles

*Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex.
*Wrote about human reason and balance in dramas
*Influenced thinking of Greeks

25

Iliad

*Greek epic poem attributed to Homer but possibly the work of many authors; defined gods and human nature that shaped Greek mythos.
*Defined gods and human nature
*Shaped Greek mythos

26

Odyssey

*Greek epic poem attributed to Homer but possibly the work of many authors; defined gods and human nature that shaped Greek mythos.
*Defined gods and human nature
*Shaped Greek mythos

27

Doric

*Along with Ionian and Corinthian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; the least ornate of the three styles.
*Main architecture of Greece
*Invented what westerners and others regard as "classical" architecture

28

Ionic

*Along with Doric and Corinthian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; the least ornate of the three styles.
*Main architecture of Greece
*Invented what westerners and others regard as "classical" architecture

29

Corninthian

*Along with Doric and Ionian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; the most ornate of the three styles.
*Main architecture of Greece
*Invented what westerners and others regard as "classical" architecture

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