10-1 (8.17.16) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 10-1 (8.17.16) Deck (59):
1

cartilage is a/vascular

A

2

one type of cartilage is found on "" surface

articular

3

dif bt chondroblast and cyst

blast = immature, developing cartilage cell

cyst = mature

4

3 cartilage types

hyaline
elastic
fibrocartilage

5

which type of cartilage is the most common

hyaline

6

fibrocartilage is fortified with what AND type #

collagen type 1

7

fibrocartilage is found where "" is needed

strength

8

50% of bone matrix is organic/in

organic

9

osteoclast is a type of (giant/tiny) cell

giant

10

how does OB become OC

osteoblast secretes osteoid -> OB entrapped in matrix = osteocyte

11

define osteoid

bone matrix

12

via appearance, how to tell apart OC and OB

OC has ruffled border

13

Around time of "", secondary ossification centers appear in body

birth

14

in the long bones, a region of growing cartilage remains bt "" and "" -> this is called

epiphyses (end) and diaphysis (middle)

epiphyseal plate

15

when bone replaces cartilage this is "" ossification

endochondral

16

secondary bone = two configurations

compact
spongy

17

nicknames for compact (1)

"" for spongy (2)

compact: cortical

spongy: trabecular, cancellous

18

spongy is found where on the bone

on the ends of bone

19

Haversian system is only seen in "" bone

purpose

compact

unit of compact bone organization

20

Haversian canal contains what

vessels and nerves

21

3 main types of muscle

Skeletal
Smooth
Cardiac

22

REL of muscle and sarcolemma

1 muscle fiber is bound by S (plasma membrane)

23

A myofibril is made of “”

Series of sarcomere

24

What gives muscle its striated appearance

Sarcomere

25

Where is actin and myosin myofilaments found

In sarcomere

26

Match: thin thick actin myosin

Thin – actin

27

Define T tubule
-plain def

Extension of sarcolemma into fiber at Z line of sarcomere

28

SR def

Site of Ca release for

29

which mec of Ca release is imp in cardiac muscle

Ca-induced Ca release

30

ATP is required for uptake of Ca by pumps in ""

SR

31

muscle cell backup system for supplying ATP

phosphocreatine + ADP -> ATP + creatine

32

define rigor mortis

ATP stores are depleted -> muscles are fixed in contracted state (no ATP to release myosin heads)

33

dif bt isoMETRIC and isoTONIC

met - generate tension; no change in length

ton - shorten muscle; no change in load

34

series elastic component causes what

delay between AP and tension/shortening of muscle

35

series elastic component promotes what kind of muscle movement

smooth mov

36

speed of isotonic depends on

load being moved

37

read: at max load, all crossbridges will be holding load, SO NONE avail for movem

-

38

single AAP produces single ""

twitch

39

train of AP at high freq (another name) produces

temporal summation produces tetanus

40

"" is caused by accumulation of IC Ca

temporal summation

41

motor unit def

1 motor neuron
all muscle fibers that it innervates

42

def spatial summation

how does it occur

recruitment of many motor units

BY increase stimulus strength

43

name 2 sensory receptors

muscle spindle

golgi tendon organ

44

arrangement of intrafusal & extrafusal

intrafusal in parallel with EM

45

i/extrafusal fibers produce force

extrafusal

46

muscle spindle is e/i

intrafusal

47

muscle spindle purpose

report muscle length AND rate of muscle stretch

48

When muscle CONTRACTS, spindles become (taut/slack)

THEN

slack

efferent input says "shorten" to remain responsive

49

Golgi tendon organ (what...aka where)

bare nerve endings

in tendon, near where tendon connects to muscle

50

Golgi TO purp

report muscle force

51

Pathway of Golgi TO

muscle contract -> tension in tendon changes GTO -> AP to brain

52

Cardiac cells are striated (YES/NO)

yes

53

REL of myosin, actin, ATP

ATP binds to myosin -> myosin and actin separate

54

normal mode of contraction of skeletal muscle is a tetanus (YES or NO)

NO

55

Most of Ca for smooth muscle comes from SR (yes or no)

NO

read: comes from outside the cell

56

binding of "" to HCN channel causes channel to open at LESS "" voltages

in this case, get higher frequency of AP

cAMP

negative

57

how does NE speed the heart

bind to beta adrenergic R

activate G protein that stimulates adenylyl cyclase to increase cAMP

58

parasympathetic example: "" released by vagus nerve SLOWS the heart by what

ACh

prolonging pacemaker potential phase

59

ACh actiavtes "" R in SA node

muscarinic receptor