4-1 (8.9.16) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4-1 (8.9.16) Deck (55):
1

The cytosol comprises % of cell V

50

2

ER purpose

produces proteins and lipids

3

ER enzyme example 1

ER enzymes use fatty acids to make phospholipids -> these are transferred to inner surface by scramblase

4

Describe docking + fusing of vesicle

dock means tethering protein binds to Rab protein; to fuse membranes, v-snare and t-snare wrap

5

forward or backward transport
-for what vesicle

for COP coated vesicle; F means ER-cis-medial-trans Golgi; B means opp

6

some endocytosed stuff pass unchaged thru cell, what is this called

transcytosis

7

thing about lysosome membrane

are glyco-sylated to prevent digestion by protease

8

lysosome contains enzymes that do what

break down stuff

9

lysosome pH is maintained via what (give one ex)

proton pumps (ATP synthase in reverse)

10

describe the modification of lysosomal enzymes

accumulation of lysosomal enzymes CONVERTS endosome into lysosome

11

define DNA

polymer of nucleotides

12

eukaryote vs prokaryotic DNA

eu means DNA is linear; pro means DNA is circular

13

what other things contain circular DNA

mitochondria and chloroplasts

14

DNA is made of what bases; what are the two types; how are they paired

adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine; purine (A,G) pyrimidine (C,T,U)

15

how is DNA dif from RNA

RNA contains uracil instead of thymine

16

define nucleoside

base with pentose sugar

17

DNA vs RNA in terms of ribose

DNA = base and deoxyribose; RNA = same and ribose

18

how are nucleotides joined together; describe the bond

phospho-di-ester bond; bond attaches 3' carbon of one ribose to 5' of next ribose

19

how do you distinguish bt 5' and 3' end (in terms of group)

5' has free phosphate group; 3' end has free hydroxyl group

20

DNA is synthesized in what direction

5 to 3

21

what is used to restrict replication of cancer

nucleoside analog

22

give the principle of nucleoside analog; give specific example

lack a 3' hydroxyl group; AZT, which has N3

23

What's the rule that says 1 to 1 ratio of pyrimidine to purine

Chargaff's rule

24

two strands are coiled around a common axis called

axis of symmetry

25

what is the role of grooves

provide loading dock for DNA binding regulatory protein

26

what are the dif structural forms of DNA

A means salt B means chromosomal Z means rare

27

if DNA is stretched out it is x m long

1 meter

28

telo vs centro-mere

T is DNA near end of chromosome; C is near center of chrom

29

polymerase purpose

synthesize complementary sequence of each strand

30

look at outline

n/a

31

ssDNA is destroyed via enzyme

nuclease

32

new strand is formed by what enzyme

DNA polymerase

33

primase function; then function of product (involved in prokyarotic DNA replication)

makes RNA primer; this pairs to DNA template

34

define primosome (prokaryotic DNA replication)

protein complex that displaces any proteins that have bound to unwound SS template like SSB

35

describe DNA polymerase III (prok DNA replication)

DNA synthesis and mismatch repair

36

Read: CFTR are either broken down or ""

n/a

37

Peroxisomes rely on a chemical to do its work

H peroxide

38

Peroxisome enzyme is; jobs

catalase; #1. inactivates toxic stuff by oxidizing them #2. breaks down excess H peroxide

39

how are alcohol and drugs detoxified in the liver

catalase oxidizes them using H peroxide

40

Peroxisome precursor vesicles arise from where

RER

41

nickname for citric acid cycle

oxidative phosphorylation

42

"" thru ATP synthase to ""

IMM thru ATP synthase to matrix

43

describe what a SNARE looks like

straight line

44

describe REL bt Golgi and ER

ER to Golgi

45

Order thru which vesicles pass thru Golgi

cis, medial, trans

46

role of Dynamin

cause the coated pit to pinch off to form coated vesicle

47

Golgi products are stored as what

secretory vesicles

48

read: co-translational entry into ER is entry into ER as translation is occuring

n/a

49

transmembrane proteins have a signal called; purpose of it

stop transfer signal; discharge protein into membrane

50

exo vs endo nuclease

exo removes nucleotides at end of DNA; endo removes nt from middle

51

-telomere is rich in what base
-function of telomere
-telomerase
--kind of transcriptase
--kind of template
--function

-DNA that is G rich (found on end of DNA)
-protects ssDNA from nuclease
-reverse transcriptase with RNA template, used to base pair with telomere

52

how does UV light affect genes

UV light -> dimerization of pyrimidines (CT) -> interfere with gene expression

53

what's the protective reasoning behind nucleoside analog?

nucleotide lacks 3' OH group -> phosphodiester bond cannot be added -> DNA strand cannot be elongated

54

Read: prokaryotes are simple things
therefore they use one enzyme for multiple functions, to save energy
its DNA polymerase ALSO does the work of an exonuclease

-

55

AT CG
which is 2 H bonds? which is 3?

AT - 2
CG - 3