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Flashcards in 1-1 Deck (60):
1

Fast responsepathway is called

Sympatho-adrenal pathway

2

Fast response (3 things that happen to body)

Dilate pupils; Constrict blood vessels (GI tract & skin); Dilate blood vessels (skeletal muscles)

3

Slow response

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

4

Positive short term effects of cortisol

#1. Mobilize energy reserves (increase glucose and fatty acid release)

5

Chronic cortisol leads to what about blood vessels

up stiffness

6

% of GDP healthcare NOW

$$ per capita NOW

20%

$10,000

7

What are the 3 spheres where Americans get care?

#1. Popular = treatment which is community based (fam)
#2. Folk = ethnic/religious healers
#3. Professional

8

Gov insurance % of US pop

30%

9

Triple aim is

1. up experience of care
2. up pop health
3. down cost

10

All country’s systems have (2 things)

-comprehensive
-similar salaries for all docs

11

Canadian health system: all medically necessary care provided WITHOUT “”

Co-pays

12

2 features of patient centered med home

-personal doc
-whole person orientation

13

RI’s unemployment rate %

7

14

RI ranks # for % of children living in poverty

US average

Rank in 20s

20s

15

RI ranks best in what (2 things)

Ranks #1 for immunization among children

Ranks #1 for im. Among teens

16

3 priorities of RI DOH

#1. Address social determ
#2. Eliminate health disparities
#3. Ensure access to care

17

name of proposed solution (geographic areas)

Health equity zone

18

Many states are showing (up/down) in childhood obesity

Down

19

Obesity is BMI over #

30

20

Aging pyramid trend
1980 to now

Before: base is young
Now: the base balloons up, so that the end result is an upside down heart

21

example of Polysaccharide

amylose starch

22

Carbs (3 types)

Mono-saccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharide

23

examples of lipids (2)

fatty acid
acyl-glycerol (triglyceride)

24

fatty acid principle things (chemically)

methyl group on one end
carboxyl group on other

25

types of lipids

FA
acylglycerol
sphingo-lipid
steroid

26

amino acids consist of

amino + carboxylic acid groups

27

nitrogen containing comp (list them)

#1 AA
#2 purine, pyri-midine, pyri-dine
#3 nucleoside
#4 nucleotide

28

define nucleoside

tide

side = nitrogen containing ring plus sugar, like ribose

tide = nucleoSIDE with a phosphate attached to the sugar

29

list AA that are essential

I like light that tries making home very pretty

isoleucine
leucine
lysine
threonine
tryptophan
methionine
histidine
valine
phenylalanine

30

during a 24 hr fast, energy needs are met by

-consumption of liver glycogen
-conversion of protein to glucose via gluconeogenesis

31

during longer periods of fasting, remaining energy needs are supplied by

-production of ketone bodies from fatty acids
-by muscle protein, which is a substrate for gluconeogenesis

32

3 ways metabolic regulation is done

-availability of substrates
-covalent modification of enzymes
-altered synthesis/breakdown of enzymes

33

"" is the primary storage form of carb in plants

starch

34

soluble fiber "" (slows/fasts) digestion

slows

35

source of insoluble
soluble

insoluble
-bran
-whole grain

soluble
-pectin-containing foods (fruit, legume)

36

define glycemic index

blood glucose response to a carb

37

what is the primary utility of GI

predict glucose response in ppl with diabetes

38

adj essential means

must be acquired thru diet

39

Total energy expenditure =

Resting energy expenditure (60%) + thermic effect of food + calories expended in physical activity

40

Thermic effect of food = what

10%(TEE)

41

Body water makes up ?/70 kg male

40 kg

42

If a person of normal weight has free access to water BUT nothing to eat, how long can they survive?

2 month

43

Mono-saccharides (3 things)

Glucose
Fructose
Galactose

44

Glucose dietary source (2)


Fructose dietary source (2)

Fruits
Corn syrup

Fruit
High fructose corn syrup

45

Galactose dietary source

Milk

46

Why is galactose weird

Not found free in nature

47

What are the di-saccharides

Sucrose
Lactose
Maltose

48

Define glycemic index

Area under the curve

Blood sugar over time after you consume something

49

The more saturated, the “” the melting temp

Higher

50

Define trans fat
-un/sat
-contains (cis/trans) (iso/poly) fatty acid

Unsaturated fat that contain trans isomer fatty acids

51

Trans fat pro (2)

1) less prone to oxidation
2) higher burning temp

52

the force that moves water (to side with more solutes) is called

osmotic pressure

53

water req #

1 mL / 1 Cal

54

read: reduce water loss by keeping wet clothes close to skin

-

55

pH equation

-log [H+]

56

normal blood pH

7.4

57

define acid
base

a = donate H

base = accept H

58

Ka denotes what

tendency of acid to dissociate and donate H

59

lower the pKa...what

lower the pKa, the greater the tendency for the acid to dissociate/stronger the acid

60

greatest increase in blood sugar when eat what kind of food

complex