12-1 (8.19.16) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12-1 (8.19.16) Deck (38):
1

defective neural tube fusion happens at wk #

3

2

name neural tube defects (3)

1) an-en-ce-phaly
2) en-ce-phalo-cele
3) spina bifida

3

how do you screen for neural tube defects

screen for UP alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
in
maternal serum and amniotic fluid

4

how do you prevent neural tube defects

give mom folic acid

5

"" cells are the predominant neuron in cortex

pyramidal

6

cerebrum vs cereBELLUM: which has more layers of cortical gray matter

BRUM

7

which of the neuron cells looks literally like a bush

which neuron looks like a triangle

Purkinje

triangle - pyramidal

8

match to correct term
-bodies
-gray matter
-process
-white matter

gray + body

process + white

9

define Nissl substance

RER that make peptide NT

10

axons are like tracks...what is its main protein

microtub

11

anterograde
retrograde
protein involved in each

A = kinesin
R = dynein

12

glial cell MAIN idea purpose

support and protect neurons

13

glial cell: neurons
ratio of #

G: N
10:1

14

these two form myelin
-Schwann
-??

match them to CNS or PNS

?? = oligo-dendro-cyte (CNS)

PNS for other

15

what does an oligo-dendro-cyte look like

like a rounded OLIVE

16

what is gyri and sulci

the folds of the cerebral cortex surface

17

read: gray matter consists of cell bodies (unm) and rest

white matter: JUST axons

-

18

how many layers of cortex

6

19

pyramidal cell function

transmit signal to other parts of CNS

20

main physio problem of multiple sclerosis

immune system attacks myelin

21

name the layers of the meninges

pia
arachnoid
dura

22

which organ produces CSF

choroid plexus

23

define the meninges

system of membranes that envelops the CNS

24

arachnoid
-consists of

pia mater
-consists of

stack the three layers

A
-CSF

P
-collagen

DURA
A
P

25

function of ependymal cell

creates CSF

26

weird fact about cell bodies

autonomic ganglia is found in PNS/CNS

NONE in nerves

only in CNS or ganglia

AG - PNS

27

electrical synapses consist of electrical connections thru what

ion channels in gap junctions

28

chemical synapses release "" to ensue with its function

chem NT

29

list out the steps of a chem synapse in neuromuscular junction

1) AP arrives; dep happens

2) Ca channels open

3) vesicles release ACh into cleft; ACh opens ion channels; dep to threshold

30

local dep is called

endplate potential

31

dif bt muscle and posts nerve cell
(hint: decide to fire AP)

posts has to integrate many inputs from various sources in order to decide whether to fire an action potential

32

which dep result from opening of NONselective cation channels

EPSP

33

most common inhibitory NT in brain

GABA

34

EPSP reversal potential =

IPSP ""

EP = 0

IP = near Nernest eq for K or Cl

35

excitation of flexor motorneuron is accompanied by...so that the leg bends

inhibition of extensor motorneuron

36

EPSP mec

IPSP mec

E
-opening of nonselective cation channels (Na and K)

I
-opening of selective channels (K or Cl)

37

AA that generate EPSP

IPSP

glutamate, aspartate

I = GABA

38

define saltatory conduction

when AP jump from node to node