8-1 (8.15.16) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8-1 (8.15.16) Deck (60):
1

purpose of connective tissue

-supports, connects

2

specialized types of connective tissue does what

insulates
absorbs shock

3

structure of connective tissue

embedded in ECM

4

main cell in connective tissue is

fibroblast

5

dif bt fibroblast and cytes (size)

cytes are skinner

6

fibroblast purpose

make fibers and macromolecules

7

type ? forms meshworks

3

8

Fibrillin-1
-forms
-purpose
-complex is called

forms fine microfibrils

acts as a scaffolding on which the elastin
molecules are deposited.

complex is
called elastic fiber.

9

OTHER CELLS found in connective tissue ??

IMMUNE CELLS

10

1 purpose of macrophage

2 part of immune system (1st 2nd 3rd) line defense

1 endocytose and digest in lysosome

2 FIRST

11

read: plasma cell is a type of immune cell

-

12

Plasma cells are derived from what

B lymphocytes

13

1. purpose of plasma cells

2. how can you tell if cell is plasma cell

3. purpose of mast cell

4. receptors of mast cells are

1. make antibodies

2. clock face nucleus (read: clumping chromatin)

3. STORES the mediator of inflammation (read: histamine, proteases, leukotrienes)

4. IgE receptors

14

action potentials are "" regenerating

self

15

define all or none

action potential does not vary as it propagates along a membrane (read: does not "fade out")

16

phases of basic action potential

1) rapid depolarization to a peak
2) falling phase of repolarization back to resting potential
3) undershoot: after hyperpolarization

17

ball and chain
1. which channel

1. Na

18

define local circuit current

loop of membrane current flowing during propagation of action potential

19

three variations of action potentials

1. in CNS, long lasting after hyperpolarization

2. in heart, AP have long plateau phase bc of opening of Ca channels

3. in heart, rate is controlled by fluctation in voltage of SA node cells (fluc is called pacemaker potential)

20

two ion channels are critical to pacemaker potential - name them

1) L type Ca

2) T type Ca

21

beta blocker does what

slows the heart and reduces BP

22

define artery

vein

capillaries

artery = carry blood AWAY from heart

vein = "" TOWARD heart

where gas, nutrient exchange occurs

23

arteries are what color

red

24

exception to typical coloring of artery and vein

pulmonary art/vein

25

thinner walls: vein vs artery

why

veins

arteries experience higher BP so need stronger wall

26

heart is a "" pump

double

27

(low/high) pressure in veins

(low/high) pressure in arteries


veins = low

arteries = high

28

define lymphatic system
-composed of
-purpose (other than get rid of bacteria in lymph node)

-capillaries and ducts
-drain excess fluid OUT of tissues and BACK to blood

29

excess fluid in tissue space is DRAINED by

lymph capillaries

30

lymph capillaries are (more/less) porous than blood capillaries

more

31

purpose of lymph node

node = fluid is filtered and exposed to white blood cells

32

permeability of lymph capillaries means what

large things like bacteria can get into lymph

33

nervous system functions

1) sensation
2) integration - processing of sensory info and decision to act or not
3) action - involves effectors (muscles or glands)

34

where does integration take place?

in brain or spinal cord

35

sensation -> integration (what neuron connects)

integration -> action (what neuron connects)

S to I = sensory neuron

I to A = motor neuron

36

dif bt axon and dendrite
-function
-#

axon: transmits AP; single

dendrites: receive AP; multiple

37

name two types of neurons found in PNS

motor
sensory neurons

38

synaptic endings of sensory neurons are found in (CNS or PNS)

CNS

39

both sensory and motor neurons (verb) two things

bridge PNS and CNS

40

PNS is composed of these types of neurons

CNS is composed of..

PNS - sensory and motor neurons

CNS - sensory, motor, AND interneurons

41

""-neurons perform the integration function of nervous system

INTER

42

read: some inter-neurons have connections with thousands of other neurons

-

43

define nerves

same thing in ?NS is called

bundles of axons in PNS

CNS, nerve tract

44

emerging from both sides of spinal cord are # pairs of spinal nerves

31

45

each spinal nerve is made of ""

union of two roots from spinal cord
-dorsal/posterior root
-ventral/anterior root

46

define inter-vertebral foramina

spaces bt vertebrae where spinal nerves exit vertebral canal

47

dorsal root contains only "" axons

ventral root ""

read: nerves contain both sensory and motor axons

sensory

ventral - only motor axons

48

define dorsal root ganglion

lump formed by cell bodies of all sensory neurons

49

define ganglion

define nucleus

group of neuron cell bodies in PNS

group of neuron cell bodies in CNS

50

after d/v roots join to form spinal nerve, what happens

spinal nerve divides into two parts: dorsal and ventral rami

51

rami means what

arm

52

rami components

motor and sensory axons

53

dorsal ramus function

ventral ramus function

DR = motor innervation to deep muscles of back and sensory innervation to skin over vertebrae

VR = motor innervation to all other muscles of body and sensory in to all remaining skin

54

read: ventral ramus is LARGER than dorsal ramus

-

55

cross section of spinal cord will show two things

outer region - white matter

inner region - gray matter

56

define white matter

mostly nerve tracts (bundles of axons carrying sensory AP to brain or motor AP down from brain)

57

why is white matter white

myelin is white and myelin wraps around axons

58

then why is gray matter called gray

bc their bodies aren't covered in myelin

59

gray matter dorsal horn is composed of "" neurons

ventral

dorsal - interneurons (receive sensory input)
ventral - motor neurons

60

deep muscles of back are called

E-PAXIAL muscles