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Flashcards in ALL extra cards (8.21) Deck (49):
1

lipids are (full/devoid) of water

devoid

2

the anion gap is used clinically for what purpose

to estimate [ ] of anions that are NOT routinely measured

3

the Swan & Pitts exp summary

-add a lot of H
-pH drops a little
-means buffering system exists

4

name them: carbonic vs bicarbonate

carbonic: 2
bi: HC03-

5

types of transport in gut epithelial cell

uni, sym, antiport

6

CON of TEM

cannot examine living cells

7

ex of each
-uni
-sym
-anti

uni Na channel

sym Na/glucose

anti Na/K

8

ECM component

why

fibrous proteins like collagen

resist stretching

9

function of laminin

attach epithelia to basal lamina

10

Do all eukaryotic proteins have a methionine on their amino terminus?

why

NO

methionine is often removed from N (start) terminus

11

Clathrin function

Dynamin function

C = shape membrane into coated pit

D = causes coated pit to pinch off to form coated vesicle

12

name the 3 main pathways for exocytosis

-give ex for 2 and 3

1) signal mediated diversion to lysosome

2) regulated secretary pathway (Golgi products in vesicles are released rapidly)
ex: insulin release

3) constitutive secretory pathway (NO VESICLES, just discharged at cell surface)
ex: production of plasma membrane

13

purpose of clathrin coated vesicle

1) endocytose things from cell surface
2) move material from Golgi to various destinations

14

peroxisome function

1) enzyme produces hydrogen peroxide

2) catalase breaks down excess HP

15

peroxisomes are plentiful in what organ

why

liver

detoxify

16

In 1, glucose breaks down into its comp

In 2, acetyl coA enters CAC

In 3, ETC exists

Protons are pumped from 4 to 5 so that ATP ends up in 6

1 - cytosol

2 - matrix

3 - IM

4 - matrix
5 - IM

6 - matrix

17

what enzyme contains polypeptides coded by mito AND nuclear DNA

ATP synthase

18

mitochondrial genes are (maternally/paternally) inherited

m

19

mismatch repair mec is involved in the cancer of "" and ""

colon
rectum

20

large proteins require the nuclear localization signal in order to enter by (passive/active) transport

active

21

large proteins require the " in order to enter by active transport

nuclear localization signal

22

what are the 3 types of spindle MT

each function?

1) aster: pull APART the POLES
2) interpolar: PUSH the POLES apart
3) kinteochore: PULL chromosomes to POLES

23

necrosis
-when does it occur
-mec

apoptosis
-when does it occur (2)
-mec

main dif bt the two

N
-cells are damaged
-cells swell, burst, and cause inflammatory response

A
-embryo development; cancer treatment
-programmed cell death

apoptosis = no inf response

24

signal recognition protein
-function
-what if dysfunctional

-traffics proteins FROM ribosome to RER
-proteins accumulate in cytosol

25

which type of muscle is intercalated disc located on

cardiac muscle

26

purpose of desmin

regulates sarcomere architecture

27

Purkinje fiber is found where; purpose

cardiac muscle

AV node -> impulse -> ventricle

28

actin, IMF, MT

list out examples of IMF

IMF
-keratin
-desmin
-laminin

29

five zones of epiphyseal plate

resting, proliferative, hypertrophy, calcification, ossification

30

which myelinating cell ONLY provides myelination to ONE axon

Schwann

31

what channels are involved in cardiac SA node AP's

HCN
Ca

32

Protein misfolding occurs in what diseases (list all of them)

Alzheimer's
C-Jacob's
Huntington's

33

tRNA relies on an enzyme called

function of enzyme

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

combines tRNA with its AA

34

In cerebrum, there are 6 layers

which layers do you need to know and name them

1 - molecular
3 - pyramidal
5 - pyramidal

35

what cells look like fried eggs

ganglion

36

HUGE cells that are a combo of 3 - what is it

peripheral nerve

37

actin
IMF
MT

diameter sizes are

a = 7NM
i = 10NM
m = 24NM

38

dif bt post and co translational entry

co - proteins go to ER

39

list out the post translation covalent modifications

1) phos of 3
2) hydroxylation of proline/lysine
(say hy to the pro-lyse)
3) ubiquination
4) glycosylation

40

kinase does what

carries out phosphorylation

41

when permeability of an ion increases, Vm ("") Em of that ion

GOES TOWARD

42

Eca
Ena
Ecl
Ek

Ca = 120
Na = 60
Cl = -70
K = -90

43

CNS have long lasting afterhyp BC

long plateau phase in heart exists BC of

Pacemaker cell is intrinisically automatic bc

1 - Ca activated K channels

2 - Ca

3 - HCN channels (non-selective cation channels)

44

alpha Amanitin toxin inhibits what RNA polymerase #?

2

45

sense strand direction

SS: 5' to 3'

46

T/F: normal method of skeletal muscle contraction is tetanus

True

47

name one way to make AP fuse (instead of remaining separate)

get rid of ball and chain

48

Do Number 10 on Zimmerman PS

-

49

a block of Na channels causes a (up/down) of threshold

up