1.1 - Anatomy & Physiology Flashcards Preview

ECU Craniofacial Anomalies + Laryngeal Rehab > 1.1 - Anatomy & Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1.1 - Anatomy & Physiology Deck (93):
1

What are the 7 Facial Landmarks?

Nasal Tip

Alar Base

Alar Rim

Columella

Philtral Ridges

Philtrum

Cupid's Bow

2

What is the Nasal Tip?

The anterior-most point of the nose.

3

What is the Alar Base?

The rounded tissue forming the base of the nose, extending from the alar rim to the columella.

4

What is the Alar Rim?

The rounded tissue forming the outer portion of the nose, running from the tip to the alar base.

5

What is the Columella?

The column of tissue separating the nostrils.

6

What are the Philtral Ridges?

The columns of tissue on either side of the philtrum.

7

What is the Philtrum?

The vertical, slight depression of tissue running from the columella to the lips.

8

What is the Cupid's Bow?

The outer edge of the upper lip--typically in the shape of a fancy bow (as in a bow-and-arrow bow, not as in a gift-wrap bow or a hair-bow)

9

What is the Superior Labial Frenulum?

The frenulum that connects the upper lip to the gum

10

What is the Inferior Labial Frenulum?

The frenulum that connects the lower lip to the gum

11

What are the Palatine Folds?

Irregular ridges in the mucous membrane on the anterior portion of the roof of the hard palate just behind the teeth

12

What is the Glossopalatine Arch?

(2)

Folds of mucous membrane passing from the Soft Palate to the side of the Tongue

Encloses the Palatoglossus Muscle

(More anterior)

13

What is the Pharyngopalatine Arch?

(2)

Folds of mucous membrane that pass downward from the posterior margin of the Soft Palate to the lateral wall of the Pharynx.

Encloses the Palatopharyngeus Muscle

(More posterior)

14

What are the Palatine Tonsils?

The tonsils on the left and right sides at the back of the throat

15

What is the Lingual Frenulum?

Frenulum that connects the underside of the tongue to the bottom of the mouth

16

What are the Sublingual Salivary Ducts?

Under the tone

17

What are the Submandibular Salivary Ducts?

Under the tongue

18

What are the Gingivae?

The gums

19

What is the Nasal Septum?

The ridge that separates the right and left nostrils

20

What are the three parts of the Nasal Septum?

Perpendicular plate of ethmoidal bone

Septal cartilage

Vomer

21

What is the Perpendicular Plate of Ethmoidal Bone?

Thin vertical bone that forms the superior portion of the Nasal Septum

22

What is the Septal Cartilage?

Thin cartilage plate that forms the inferior portion of the Nasal Septum

23

What is the Vomer?

Thin bone that forms the medial portion of the Nasal Septum

24

[Place holder for Hard Palate]

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[Slide 7]

25

[Place holder for Premaxillae + ANS]

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[Slide 7]

26

[Place holder for Palatine Bone + PNS]

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[Slide 7]

27

[Place holder for 1/4 of hard palate]

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[Slide 7]

28

What is the Incisive Foreman?

funnel-shaped opening in hard palate immediately behind the incisor teeth where blood vessels and nerves pass

29

What is the Premaxillae?

Area of the hard palate just behind the front teeth

30

What is the Palatine Process of Maxilla?

Anterior three quarters of the hard palate

31

What is the Median Palatine Suture?

(2)

Union between the horizontal plates of the palatine bones

Median line of hard palate

32

How does the Soft Palate attach to the Hard Palate?

Via aponeurosis

33

What is Aponeurosis?

Fibrous tissue that serves as a "buffer zone" for the insertion of the muscles that comprise the soft palate, similar to the part of a plug that prevents the flexible wire from breaking off from the inflexible plastic surrounding the prongs.

34

[Place holder for "anchor for muscles, adds stiffness to velum"]

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[Slide 9]

35

What is the Vellum composed of?

(5)

Muscle

Soft Tissue

Tendons

Glandular Tissue

Adipose (fat cells)

36

What is the benefit of the Vellum's construction materials?

They allow it to be mobile

37

What is the surface of the vellum covered in?

Mucous membrane

38

What is the Velopharyngeal Mechanism?

The mechanism responsible for directing the transmission of sound energy and air pressure in both the oral cavity and the nasal cavity

39

What is the Velopharyngeal Port?

Passage way between nasal and oral cavities

40

What are the 7 Velopharyngeal Muscles?

Levator Veli Palatini

Tensor Veli Palatini

Muscles Uvulae

Palatoglossus

Palatopharyngeus

Superior Pharyngeal Constrictor

Salpingopharyngeus

41

Where is the origin for the Levator Veli Palatini? (2)

Where is the insertion?

Petrous portion of Temporal Bone

Medial cartilaginous surface of Eustachian Tube

//

Palatine Raphe

42

What is the purpose of the Levator Veli Palatini?

(3)

The main muscle mass of the vellum

Elevates the vellum

Acts as a sling to pull the velum up and back toward the posterior pharyngeal wall.

43

Where is the origin for the Tensor Veli Palatini? (2)

Where is the insertion?

Base of Medial Pteryoid Plate of the Sphenoid Bone

Lateral sides of the membraneous and cartilaginous portions of the Eustachian Tubes

//

Mucosa of the Uvela

44

What is the purpose of the Tensor Veli Palatini?

Opens Eustachian Tube to aerate and drain middle ear

45

Where is the origin for the Muscles Uvulae? (2)

Where is the insertion?

Posterior Nasal Spine

Palatine Aponeurosis

//

Mucosa of the Uvula

46

What is the purpose of the Muscles Uvulae?

(4)

Creates a bulge on the posterior part of nasal surface of velum

Makes velum more still

Helps fill velopharyngeal gap

Adds bulk in the midline to assist with closure

47

Where is the origin for the Palatoglossus?

Where is the insertion?

Inferior surface of the Palatine Aponeurosis

//

Transverse + posterolateral muscular portions of the Tongue

48

What is the purpose of the Palatoglossus? (2)

Where is it located?

Depresses velum

Antagonist to levator

//

Within the Anterior Faucial Pillar

49

Where is the origin for the Palatopharyngeus?

Where is the insertion? (2)

Palatine aponeurosis

//

Posterior border of Thyroid Cartilage

Inferior portion of Pharynx

50

What is the purpose of the Horizontal fibers of the Palatopharyngeus? (2)

What is the purpose of the Vertical fibers? (2)

Sphincter action of lateral + posterior pharyngeal walls

Narrows the pharynx by pulling the lateral pharyngeal walls upward
and medially

//

Lowers the velum

Elevates the larynx

51

Where is the origin for the Superior Pharyngeal Constrictor? (3)

Where is the insertion?

Velum

Medial Pterygoid Plate + Hamulus

Mylohoid Line of Mandible

//

Median Pharyngeal Raphe

52

What is the purpose of the Superior Pharyngeal Constrictor?

(3)

Reduces pharyngeal diameter

Assists in velopharyngeal closure

Constricts the pharyngeal walls against the velum

53

Where is the origin for the Salpingopharyngeus?

Where is the insertion?

Torus Tuberous (opening of Eustachian Tube)

//

Median Pharyngeal Raphe

54

What is the purpose of the Salpingopharyngeus?

(2)

Courses vertically along lateral pharyngeal walls

Little functional significance

55

What are the Chonae?

The chonae are cone-shaped structures that connect the nasal cavity to the nasopharynx

56

What is the Septum?

Combination of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, the vomer bone, and the septal cartilage

57

Is the Musculus Uvulae a paired muscle?

Yes

58

What is the Pharyngeal Raphe?

Medial groove in the pharynx that serves as origin and insertion for several of the pharyngeal constrictors

59

What innervates the muscles for Velopharyngeal Closure?

Pharyngeal Plexus

(CN IX-Glosssopharngeal + CN X-Vegus)

60

What innervates the Palatoglossus?

CN XII - Hypoglossus

61

What innervates the Tensor Veli Palatini?

CN V - Trigeminal

62

What provides Sensory Innervation for both the Hard + Soft Palates?

Greater + Lesser Palatine Nerves

(Arise from CN V - Trigeminal)

63

What provides Sensory Innervation for the Faucial + Pharyngeal regions?

CN IX - Glossopharyngeal

64

What does the velum do during nasal sounds?

What muscles create this action? (2)

It remains in a lowered position

//

Palatoglossus

Palatopharyngeus

65

What does the velum do during oral sounds?

How is this accomplished? (3)

It must be elevated to close off nasal cavity

//

Posterior + superior movement of velum

Anterior + medial movement of pharyngeal walls

Complete contact of velum against posterior pharyngeal wall

66

What are the 3 different velar closure patterns?

Coronal

Sagittal

Circular

67

What is Coronal Velopharyngeal closure?

(2)

Closure occurs with movement of the Velum and Posterior Pharyngeal Walls.

There is little contribution of the Lateral Pharyngeal Walls.

68

What is Sagittal Velopharyngeal closure?

(2)

Closure occurs with medial movement of the Lateral Pharyngeal Walls.

There is little contribution of the Velum and Posterior Pharyngeal Walls.

69

What is Circular Velopharyngeal closure?

(3)

All structures contribute to closure, which occurs in a “purse string” or sphincter-type pattern.

Often includes a Passavant’s ridge.

70

What is Passavant's Ridge?

A muscular contraction on the Posterior Pharyngeal Walls that results in a bulge.

It can sometimes help with closure but is often below the area of velopharyngeal closure so it may not contribute to closure.

71

Passavant's Ridge is found in ___% of individuals with a history of cleft and ___% of "normal" speakers.

23%

15%

72

What happens if the Adenoid Pad is ENLARGED?

(2)

Prevents an air tight seal

Can cause small gaps that allow for nasal air emission

73

What happens if the Adenoid Pad is IRREGULAR?

(3)

Can cause obstruction or cut-de-sac resonance

Can interfere with Lateral Pharyngeal Wall movement

May prevent an air tight seal

74

Can enlarged or irregular Adenoid Pads cause Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI)?

For how long? (2)

Yes

//

Can be temporary (usually resolves in 6 months)

Can persist especially in kids with submucous cleft palate

75

Children of less than 13 years show Velopharyngeal closure at a ________, but adults show _________ in velar height.

Palatal plane

Significant variations

76

How does gender affect the velum?

Adult males tend to have greater velar height and stretch

77

What causes velar elevation to vary?

Phonetic context

78

Which creates a greater Velar Closure Force: high vowels or low vowels?

High vowels

79

Which creates a greater Velar Closure Force: nasal sounds or oral sounds?

Oral sounds

80

Which creates a greater Velar Closure Force: voiceless consonants or voiced consonants

Voiceless consonants

81

Which creates a greater Velar Closure Force: lingual apical consonants /t/ or lingual dorsal consonants /k,g/?

Lingual dorsal consonants /k,g/

82

Which creates a greater Velar Closure Force: fricatives following nasals or fricatives preceding nasals?

Fricatives following nasals

83

Velar position must be changed + coordinated for ___________.

Each syllable

84

What are 3 examples of Non-Pneumatic Activities?

Swallowing

Gagging

Vomiting

85

What happens to the velum during Non-Pneumatic Activities?

(3)

It is raised high

The Lateral Pharyngeal Walls close tightly across their entire length

A very firm closure is achieved

86

What assists Velopharyngeal Closure when Swallowing?

The back of the tongue

87

What may be seen in Non-Pneumatic Activities but not Speech when there is Velopharyngeal Dysfunction?

Velopharyngeal closure may be sufficient for Non-Pneumatic Activities but NOT for speech

88

What are
examples of Pneumatic Activities?

(4)

Blowing

Whistling

Singing

Speech

89

What is a Pneumatic Activity?

One that uses the airstream following velopharyngeal closure

90

What happens to velopharyngeal closure during Pneumatic Activities?

(3)

It is lower in the nasopharynx

It is less exaggerated

It requires different closure patterns for each specific activity

91

What does the Pneumatic Activity of Blowing require?

Generalized velopharyngeal movement

92

What does the Pneumatic Activity of Speech require?

(2)

Precise, rapid movements

Each has a different point of contact

93

What does the Pneumatic Activity of Singing require?

Longer and tighter velopharyngeal closure than is needed for speech (especially for higher pitches)