Flashcards in 3.8 Types of Compensatory Errors Deck (22):
What are compensatory/maladaptive errors?
- Glottal stop
- Mid-dorsum palatal stop
- Pharyngeal fricative
- Pharyngeal stop
- Velar fricative
- Posterior nasal fricative
- Anterior nasal fricative
- Lateral air escape
- Nasal sniff
How is a glottal stop produced?
How is this related to vocal folds?
Produced with a forceful adduction of the vocal folds and the buildup of air pressure under the glottis
Ventricular folds (false vocal folds) can often approximate with the forceful closure of true folds.
What is the definition of a glottal stop?
- vocal folds are suddenly opened, releasing the air pressure to produce a grunt type sound
How is a posterior nasal fricative produced?
Produced with back of tongue articulating against the velum as for the production of /ng/
What is the process to make a posterior nasal fricative?
- Air pressure builds in the pharynx and pushes the velopharyngeal valve open
- Results in a loud, friction sound for specific consonant sounds
What can a posterior nasal fricative be due to?
due to difficulties with hearing
- PNF allows sound to be amplified
How is an anterior nasal fricative produced?
What often accompanies anterior nasal fricatives?
- Produced by constricting air in the anterior nares
- Often accompanied by a nasal grimace
How are pharyngeal stops made?
- Base of the tongue moves backward to articulate against the posterior pharyngeal wall
- Dorsum of the tongue is concave and low in the oral cavity
What are the pharyngeal stops usually substituted with?
How difficult is a pharyngeal stop to produce?
difficult to produce this phoneme
- results in longer duration than usual between the consonant and the vowel
How is a pharyngeal fricative produced?
- Tongue is retracted so the base of the tongue approximates, but does not touch the pharyngeal wall
- Friction sound occurs as the air pressure is forced between the small opening between the base of the tongue and pharyngeal wall
How is a mid dorsum palatal stop produced?
- Produced when the dorsum of the tongue articulates against the palate
What can a mid dorsum palatal stop be substituted with?
lingual-alveolars (t, d, n, l) and velar (k, g, and ng)
What can a mid dorsum palatal stop be caused by?
- Crowding in the oral cavity (due to a class III malocclusion)
- Anterior crossbite, deep bite or low palatal arch
- An attempt to compensate for a fistula
How can a velar fricative be produced?
- Produced with the back of the tongue in the same position as for the production of a /y/ sound
- Friction occurs as air is forced through that small opening between back of tongue and velum
What is lateral air escape typically due to?
typically due to dental arch malformations
What does lateral air escape cause?
- Causes airstream from sibilant sounds to be lateralized/distorted
In regards to lateral air escape, when is treatment required?
treatment required if airflow is lateral
How is a nasal sniff produced?
Produced by a forcible inspiration through the nose
What is a nasal sniff usually substituted with?
sibilant sounds, particularly the /s/, in the final word position
What is backing?
- There is an attempt to valve for articulation where there is maximum air pressure, before the air pressure is lost through the velopharyngeal port
- Phonemes are produced with the back of the tongue against the velum or against the posterior pharyngeal wall