12: Reunification and Renaissance in Chinese Civilization: The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties Flashcards Preview

AP World History > 12: Reunification and Renaissance in Chinese Civilization: The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties > Flashcards

Flashcards in 12: Reunification and Renaissance in Chinese Civilization: The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties Deck (27):
1

Yangdi

-Second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618.

-Restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system.

-Strengthed foundations for political unification and posperity in Sui economic prosperity at first but then brought it's downfall.

2

Li Yuan

-AKA Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire following assisnation of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu.

-Took over empire following assisnation of Yangdi.

-First emperor of Tang dynasty.

3

Chang'an

-Capital of Tang dyanasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at that time.

-Capital of Tang dyanasty.

4

Ministry of Rites

-Administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars.

-Helped those of lower classes get into higher ranking positions without connections.

5

jinhsi

-Title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office.

6

pure land Buddhism

-Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among masses of Chinese society.

-Popular among masses of Chinese society.

7

Chan Buddhism (China)/ Zen Buddhism (Japan)

-Stressed meditiation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; Chan popular with elite members of Chinese society.

-Main religion of upper classes of Chinese society,.

8

Empress Wu

-Tang ruler 690-705 C.E. in China; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created.

-Supported Buddhist establishment.

-Tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created.

9

Wuzong

-Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monastaries in 840s; reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology.

-Openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monastaries in 840s.

-Reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology.

 

10

Xuanzong

-Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755 though he encouraged overexpansion. 

-Encouraged overexpansion.

-Weaked dynasty.

11

Yang Guifei

-Royal concubine during reign of Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into royal administration led to revolt.

-Packed upper levels of government with her greedy relatives.

-Led to revolt.

12

Zhao Kuangyin

-Founder of Song dynasty; originally a general following the fall of Tang; took title of Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dtnasty that remained independent.

-Founder of Song dynasty.

-Failed to overcome northern Liao dtnasty that remained independent.

13

Liao Dynasty

-Founded in 907 by nomadic Khitan people from Manchuria; maintained independence from Song dynasty in China.

-Nomads independant of Song.

-Weakened Song through attacks.

14

Khitans

-Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century.

-Militarily superior to Song dynasty.

-Forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century.

15

Zhu Xi

-Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philisophical principles to everyday life and action.

-Influenced culture, beliefs, and women's rights in Song Era.

16

neo- Confucians

-Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.

-Emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.

-Changed culture such as lessened women's rights.

17

Tangut

-Rulers of Xi Xia kingdom of northwest China; one of regional kingdoms during period of southern Songl conquered by Mongols in 1226.

-Rulers of Xi Xia kingdom of northwest China.

18

Xi Xia

-Kingdom of Tangut people north of Song kingdom, in mid-11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry.

-Collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry.

19

Wang Anshi

-Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song emperor in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists; advocated greater state intervention in society.

-Introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists.

-Advocated greater state intervention in society.

20

Jurchens

-Founders of the Qin kingdom that succeedd the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to south.

-Founders of the Qin kingdom that succeedd the Liao in northern China.

-Forced Song to flee to south.

21

Jin

-Kingdom north of the Song Empire; established by Jurchens in1115 after overthrowing Liao dynasty; ended in 1234.

-Overthrew Liao dynasty.

-Forced Song to flee south.

22

Southern Song

-Rump state of Song dynasty from 1127 to 1279; carved out of much larger domains ruled by the Tang and northern Song; culturally one of the most glorious reigns in Chinese history.

-One of most glorious reigns in Chinese history culturally.

23

Grand Canal

-Built in 7th century during reign of Yandi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the the north China plainwith the Yandtze river basin to the south; nearly 1200 miles long.

-Linked the original centers of Chinese civilization on the the north China plainwith the Yandtze river basin to the south.

-Helped trade and economy.

24

junks

-Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fanders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.

-Dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.

-Improved economic activity.

25

flying money

-Chinese credit intrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency.

-Reduced danger of robbery so economy better.

-Early form of currency.

26

footbinding

-Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women in the household.

-Made it easier to confine women in the household.

-Decreased women's rights.

27

Li Bo

-Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philisophical musings.

-Most famous poet of Tang era.

-Influenced Tang thinking.

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