13: The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 13: The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam Deck (26):
1

Taika reforms

-Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscripted army.
-Attempt to change Japanese government.

2

Tale of Genji, The

-Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; related life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society.
-First novel in any language.
-Showed style of Japanese society.

3

Fujiwara

-Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
-Had considerable influence over Japanese imperial affairs.
-Aided in decline of imperial power.

4

bushi

-Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects and collected revenues; built up private armies.
-Ruled small kingdoms in Japan.

5

samurai

-Mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi); loyal to local lords, not the emperor.
-Bushi's troops.
-Loyal to bushi, not emperor.

6

sepukku

-Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly know in the West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
-Ritualistic suicide that would restore honor and demonstrate courage.
-Showed Japanese dedication to honor.

7

Taira

-Powerful Japanese family in 11th centuries; competed with Minamoto family; defeated after Gempei Wars.
-Powerful Japanese family that participated in Gempei wars.

8

Minamoto

-Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th-century Japan.
-Came out victorious in Gempei Wars.
-Established bakufu government.

9

Gempei Wars

-Waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira.
-War between Taira and Minamoto.
-Resulted in destruction of Taira and formation of bakufu.

10

bakufu

-Military government established by the Minamoto following the Gempei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai.
-Government formed after Gempei Wars.
-Government form that left power mostly in military and samurai.

11

shoguns

-Military leaders of the bakufu (military governments in Japan).
-Led bakufu.

12

Hojo

-Warrior family closely allied with Minamoto; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers who claimed to rule in the name of Japanese emperor at Kyoto.
-Dominated Kamkura and manipulated Minamto.

13

Ashikaga Takuaji

-Member of the Minamoto family; overthrew the Kamakura regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate from 1336- 1537; drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino.
-Ashikaga drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino.
-Established the Ashikaga Takuaji.

14

Ashikaga Shogunate

-Replaced the Kamakura regime in Japan; ruled from 1336- 1537; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority.
-Replaced Kamakura regime.

15

daimyos

-Warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states.
-Warlord rulers.

16

Choson

-Earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han emperor in 109 B.C.E.
-First Korean kingdom.

17

Koguryo

-Tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula in 37 B.C.E.; adopted cultural Sinification.
-Northern Korean tribes then kingdoms.

18

Silla

-Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea by 668.
- Defeated Koguryo and ruled united Korea.

19

Paeche

-Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated by rival Silla kingdom and its Chinese Tang allies in 7th century.
-Independent Korean kingdom.

20

Sinification

-Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan,less typical of Vietnam.
-Adaption of Chinese culture in other regions.
-Shaped Korean and Japanese culture.

21

Yi

-Korean dynasty that succeeded Koryo dynasty following period of Mongol invasions; established in 1392; ruled Korea to 1910; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence.
-Korean dynasty that ruled Korea to 1910.
-Restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence in Korea.

22

Khmers

-Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south.
-Influenced Vietnamese society and culture.

23

Trung sisters

-Leaders of one the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 C.E.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society.
-Leaders of one the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule.
-Demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society.

24

Chams

-Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south,
-Vietnamese rivals driven into the highlands.

25

Nguyen

-Rival Vietnamese dynasty that arose in southern Vietnam to challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi; kingdom centered on Red and Mekong rivers; capital at Hue.
-Challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi.

26

Trinh

-Dynasty that ruled in north Vietnam at Hanoi, 1533 to 1772; rivals of Ngyuen family in south.
-Dynasty that ruled in north Vietnam at Hanoi, 1533 to 1772.

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