14. Process Characteristics Flashcards Preview

Six Sigma > 14. Process Characteristics > Flashcards

Flashcards in 14. Process Characteristics Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...

Process Flow Metrics P. 205

-Touch time
-Takt time
-Cycle time
-Value added activity
-Setup time


Work in Progress (WIP)

Material between input and output (finished) stage.
Asset and Liability.


Work in Queue (WIQ)

Material waiting to be processed. One component of WIP.


Touch time

Time of a unit of product is actually being worked on.


Takt time

Rate in time per unit at which the process must complete units in order to achieve the customer demand.

Time per unit:
Time available / # units to be produced

Unit per time:
# units to be produced / Time available


Cycle time

Time required to complete one unit form the beginning of the process to the end of the process.



Amount of output that passes through the process in a specified period of time.


Setup time

Time from the last unit on one job to the fist good unit of the next job.


Hidden Factory P. 208

The collection of activities in a process that generate waste (loss time, money, and effort).


Process Analysis Tools

-Process Maps
-Value Stream Maps
-Work Instructions
-Spaghetti Diagrams
-Circle Diagrams
-Gemba Walk


Flowcharts P. 209

Pictorial or graphical representation of a process.

1. Define the process
2. Define the boundaries
3. Determine the level of detail
4. Brainstorm the activities that take place
5. Arrange proper sequence
6. Draw arrows to show flow
7. Review with other to seek agreement


Process Maps P. 211

Concept of Y= f(X). Basic anatomy:

-Input variables (X). Below the flow line.
-Desired output. Above the flow line.


Input Variables (6 M's) P. 213

-Machines (Equipment)
-Manpower (People)
-Methods (Process)
-Mather Nature (Environment)


Input Variables Classification P. 214

C- controllable
N- noise (too expensive or uncontrollable)
SOP- predefined way of a process (C)
X- Critical subset of controllable variables


Value Stream Map P. 217

Future State:
1. Produce to the takt time.
2.Create continuous flow wherever possible.
3. Use supermarket pull systems to control production where continuous flow does not extend upstream.
4. Send the customer schedule to only one production process (the pacemaker process).
5. Level the product/service mix evenly over time at the pacemaker process.
6. Level the production volume by creating an "initial pull," releasing and withdrawing small, consistent increments of work at the pacemaker process.
7. Develop the ability to make "every part every day" in processes upstream of the pacemaker process.


Work Instructions P. 221

-All relevant header info that links the product to the work instruction.
-All the parts required.
-All the consumable raw materials.
-All the tooling and fixtures required.
-All the personnel required.
-Potential safety hazards.
-Potential opportunities to create defects.
-Meaningful and properly annotated graphics & designs
-The exact sequence of steps.


Spaghetti Diagrams P. 222

Product flow paths in an organization.


Circle Diagrams P. 224

Show linkages between various items.
Readily depict predecessor and successor relationships as well as potential bottlenecks..


Gemba Walk P. 224

Method of obtaining "voice of customer" that requires visit and observe in the environment.

-Make the walks theme-based.
-Engage leaders.
-Set expectations.
-Create a checklist.
-Publish what was learned.
-Follow up on the process.