2-1 - Phonological Acquisition: The First Words Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2-1 - Phonological Acquisition: The First Words Deck (97):
1

What is Phonology?

The sounds of a language

How they are organized to form words

2

What does the child need to learn when acquiring language?

Speech sounds

Phonotactics

Vocabulary

Mental representations

3

What are speech sounds?

Combinations of consonants and vowels

4

What do we call the way speech sounds combine to form words?

Phonotactics

splash - good
psash - bad
esplash - bad

5

What are mental representations (in language acquisition)?

How is each word supposed to be pronounced

Conceptual knowledge of phonemes

6

What is a Lean Interpretation of child language acquisition?

What does the child know about word? (Do the perceive /@/ as /k@t/? Do they perceive /t/ as /k/?)

They may not have a specific knowledge of /k/, but they might be able to distinguish its sound from other sounds

What features are they listening for?

7

What is a Rich Interpretation of child language acquisition?

The child hears the specific phonemes but can't pronounce them yet

8

Is is easy to prove a rich interpretation of child language acquisition?

No!

9

During the first words stage, how many words does the child usually acquire? Is this number set in stone?

50

No

10

A Child's First Words usually contain _____ syllables (______, ______) and ______.

Simple

CV

CVC

Reduplications

11

What nasals usually appear in a child's first words?

/m/

/n/

12

What stops usually appear in a child's first words?

/b/

/d/

13

What affricates are usually in a children's first words?

None

14

What liquids are usually in a child's first words?

None

15

What glides are usually in a child's first words?

/w/

/y/

16

What fricatives are usually in a child's first words?

/f/

/s/

17

What three things seems to help determine a child's first sounds?

Phonetic simplicity

Language Input

Token Frequency

18

What is Phonetic Simplicity?

Sounds that seem to require less effort than other sounds

(This may not be identical for all children even if they are learning the same language)

19

What is Language Input?

Linguistic environment of the child

A child is going to mimics the words being used around them

(This will change depending on the linguistic environment)

20

Who is Cliff Pye?

Studied "k'iche" /kiʧe/ (Guatmalan)

Noted that the two most frequent early consonants were /ʧ/ & /l/

21

What is Token Frequency?

How often a sound occurs in speech

22

What is Type Frequency?

How many unique words have this particuuar sound

23

Does Dr Ingram believe that token frequency is an important determiner of first words in English?

No

24

Is there evidence that Token Frequency may play a role in first words for other languages?

Yes

25

What is an unusually first phoneme for Chinese infants? Why do we think they learn this so early?

Initial nasal velar

Children learn this early but it has a high Type Frequency but a low Token Frequency

26

Do some kids take a while to pick up final consonants?

Yes

27

What word structure is more common in Spanish kids but not in English?

VCV

28

What word structure is most common in English?

CV

29

What word structure is the most rare?

VC

30

Do words show variable pronunciations? Why?

Yes

Kids don't always pronounce words the same way each time they say them

Sounds may be pronounced differently when in different words or in a different position within the words (intitial, medial, final, etc.)

31

What are three Transition Phenomena?

Word shifts

Proto-Words

Presyntactic Forms

32

What are Word Shifts?

Change from one word to another

33

What are Proto-Words?

Child created words

Ex:
Momma = /mamama/
Woof = /u'u/

34

What are Presyntactic Forms?

Brief, unstressed phonetic material around lexical words

Example:

dog = /ʌda͞ʊgɪ/

35

Why do kids often produce presyntactic forms?

They rarely hear words on their own. They are usually in the midst of continuous speech

36

When does the Word Spurt occur? What can the child's word acquisition rate reach?

1;6

6 words/day

37

Why does the Word Spurt occur?

The child's phonology needs to keep up with new sounds & syllables

38

What is the Lexical Pattern of Emergence?

That some speech sounds come in and are only used in very few, specific words: /mɑmɑ/

Child has /m/ but only lexically. It doesn't generalize to other words. It only uses the sound for one word.

39

What is the Gradual Pattern of Emergence?

Most common pattern

A sound will come in lexically then then gradually spread to new words

40

What was word stress like in English during the 1600s? In the 1900s?

1600s - Words (whose stress can distinguish meaning) had stress at the end

Project (PROject vs. proJECT)

1900s - Stress has moved to the beginning of the word

41

What is Sudden Emergence? How common is it?

A child will avoid a sound for a long time then will all of the sudden master it

Rarest pattern

42

What is Salience?

That some children will prefer certain sounds and templates

43

What is a Template? When do they occur?

Syllable forms with similar consonants and vowels

They characterize a subset of words in first 100 words, but Dr. Ingram doesn't feel like this is clinically vital for SLPs

44

What can templates be used to estimate? Is this applicable for all children?

How the would child pronounce an "unpronounceable" word

(Dr. Ingram sees this as somewhat controversial)

No

45

What is Avoidance?

Refusing to pronounce difficult sounds

46

What did "T" avoid?

/p/

47

What did "Ian" avoid?

Fricatives (Could only form /h/)

j -> "It's called a lemon"

zither -> "Can't say the word"

sheriff -> "Lemon"

saxophone -> "I call'em a lemon-hone"

48

What did Samuel Ingram used when avoiding sounds?

/jai jai jai/

49

What is Whole Word Complexity?

Looking at the correctness of the whole word (syllables, vowels, etc.) instead of just the consonant correctness

50

Do words differ dramatically in their complexity?

Yes

51

First words are phonologically _______.

Simple

(e.g. dog, cat, fish, mama, dada)

52

Words become more complex due to ______ and ______.

More syllables, (e.g. banana, elephant)

Consonant clusters, (e.g. splash, branch)

53

What did Dr. Ingram devise as a way to measure complexity?

Whole Word Complexity

(Using Phonological Mean Length of Utterance (PMLU)

54

What does PMLU stand for?

Phonological Mean Length of Utterance

55

How do you score Phonological Mean Length of Utterance (PMLU)?

1 point for each phoneme they produce

1 additional point for each correct consonant

Example: /kæt/

/kæt/ = 5 or 100% (maximum score)

/tæt/ = 4 or 80%

/tæp/ = 3 or 60%

/tæ/ = 2 or 40%

/æ/ = 1 or 20%

Raspberry = 0 or 0%

56

What is Proximity Measure?

The child's PMLU divided by the target PMLU

57

Typically developing English speaking children usually have proximitiy scores over ______.

60%

58

Proximity Measures tend to even out the scores between kids who maintain _______ versus those who are better at _______.

Syllable correctness

Consonant correctness

59

When we are looking at Syllable Structure/Early Syllable Shapes, what are we looking for?

What syllable shapes are most used

(CV, V, CVC, etc)

60

What does Dr. Ingram likes to measure in regards to syllable structure? Why

Percent of Monosyllables

Some kids preserve syllable structure but with inaccurate consonants

Some kids drop syllables but preserve consonant accuracy

61

The percent of monosyllables that English speaking kids tend to produce tends to range from _______.

50-100%

62

Why is there such a wide range in the percent of monosyllables produced by English speaking children?

Due to the fact that some kids aren't so keen on reduplication

Some kids seem more drawn to molosyllables and others to multi-syllables.

63

Monosyllabic kids tend to get _______ earlier

Multi-syllabic kids tend to not get _______ and seem to only be able to _______.

Final consonants

Final consonants as quickly / produce them if they can add a vowel afterwards

64

It takes kids ______ years to master consonant clusters.

6-7

65

Who tends to get higher articulation scores: monosyllabic kids or non-monosyllabic kids? Who is more intelligible?

Monosyllabic kids

Both

66

What did Stoel-Gammon find in his experiment on 33 2-yr-olds?

Found that their words were...

CV, V (all samples)
CVC (97%)
CVCV (79%)
CVCVC (65%)
Some instances of clusters

67

What should SLPs have in their tool box in order to perform Multidimensional Analysis?

Whole Word Complexity

Syllable Structure

Phonetic Inventories

Phonological Processes

68

What are Phonetic Inventories?

The particular phonemes a child knows

69

What sounds would Dr. Ingram want a child to master first? What position are these phonemes usually found?

Word Initial Position

Nasals: /m/, /n/

Stops: All

Fricatives: /f/, /s/, /h/

Glides: /w/, /j/

70

What phonemes are usually acquired in Word Final Position during language acquisition?

Nasals: /n/

Stops: Unvoiced

Fricatives: /s/

Liquids: /r/ but only sometimes

71

Are more phonemes acquired in Word Initial or in Word Final Position?

Word Initial Position

72

What did David Stampe write? When?

"Natural Phonology"

Late 1960s

73

What was the point of Stampe's "Natural Phonology"?

When child is learning fricatives, but can't make them, they might change them all into stops

/f/ -> /p/
/s/ & /ʃ/ -> /t/

74

What is the process of substituting stops for fricatives called? What is its purpose?

Stopping

To simplify words until they are learned correctly

75

At what ages is stopping commonly seen?

First words to age 6 or so

76

Why does Stopping simplify words?

Stopping airflow is easier than impeding it

(e.g. ‘foot’ as ‘put’)

77

What is Final Consonant Deletion?

Omitting word final consonants to preserve CV

(e.g. ‘back’ spoken as ‘baa’)

78

What is Unstressed Syllable Deletion?

Deleting syllables that carriy weak stress

(e.g. ‘banana’ spoken as ‘nana’)

79

What is Cluster Reduction?

Deleting consonant combinations,

(e.g. ‘play’ spoken as ‘pay’)

80

What is Consonant Simplifications?

Using a simpler consonant for a more difficult one

81

What is Fronting? What types of sounds are fronted?

Substituting consonants to those produce more forward in the mouth

Always Velars -> Alveolars

(e.g. ‘d’ & ‘t’ are easier than ‘g’ or ‘k’)
(e.g. ‘cow’ spoken as ‘dow’)

82

What is the benefit to Fronting?

Consonants produced at the forward part of the mouth are easier than those produced further back

83

Are Velars -> Bilabials considered fronting?

No. They tend to be a perceptual issue

84

What is Backing? Does Dr. Ingram believe this is a real thing?

Changing alveolars to velars (/t/ -> /k/)

Dr. Ingram thinks this is bunk

85

What is Gliding?

Replacing /r/ and/or /l/ with /w/

(e.g. ‘rock’ spoken as ‘wo(ck)’

86

What is Assimilation?

Making one sound the same as, or similar to, another in the word

(e.g. ‘dark’ pronounced as ‘guck’ (in really early stages)

87

What is Prevocalic Voicing?

Voicing consonants that come before vowels

( e.g. ‘top’ [dap])

88

What is Postvocalic Devoicing?

Devoicing consonants that come after vowels

(e.g. ‘pig’ [bik])

89

What is the Neo-Jakobson Approach?

Syllable structure starts with CV or reduplicated CV (e.g. ma, mama, pa, papa)

This will expand to CVC, CVCV

90

Are consonants are acquired systematically? How so?

Yes

Either by contrasting place or contrasting classes/manner or articulation (stops vs. fricatives, etc.)

91

What were Joan Velten’s First INITIAL Consonants? What was weird about this?

Nasals: /m/, /n/

Stops: /b/, /d/

Fricatives: /f/, /z/

Glides: /w/


Weird = /z/ (Turns out she had a French nanny)

92

What were Joan Velten’s First FINAL Consonants?

Nasals: /m/, /n/

Stops: /p/, /t/

Fricatives: /f/, /s/

93

What were Joan Velten’s First Vowels?

/u/

/ɑ/

94

What Phonological Processes did Joan Velten employ?

Syllable Deletion (e.g. bottle [ba], banana [na:’na])

Final Consonant Deletion (e.g. ban [ba])

Voicing (e,g, push [bus])

Fronting (e.g. duck [dat], push [bus])

95

What four things do languages differ in?

Phonological inventories

Phonotactics

Functional load

Number of contrasts (minimal pairs) for a particular phoneme

96

The sequence of phoneme acquistion is determined by ______ and ______.

Phonetic Complexity

Functional Load

97

Order of acquisition is influenced by the ______ that a phoneme occurs in.

Number of words

(e.g. Italian [v])