3.1 - The Linguistic Environment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.1 - The Linguistic Environment Deck (74):
0

What is the Linguistic Environment?

The context of language

1

Piaget on Cultural Attitudes:

“...very rarely have I been able, in America, to expound any aspect of my stage theory without being asked 'How can I speed up development?”

No questions - just review

2

What did Pye notice about K'iche' parents? Why?

That they don't really talk to their kids

Children are at risk - fragile

3

Why do K'iche' parents believe that children are fragile?

High infant mortality rate

Protection of the "soul"

Talking loudly to a child might scare the scare out of it

4

Are most adults more animated when speaking to children vs. adults? How about K'iche' adults?

Yes

With K'iche' this is opposite

5

Do K'iche' parents speak for their children?

Yes

6

Do K'iche' parents play language games and/or songs with their kids?

No

7

What is a sample conversation between a K'iche' parent and their child?

Adult to Child: “Do you know what you are holding?”
Mother to Adult: “He says 'girl'"
Mother to Child: “You say little horsie” (2x)
Mother to Adult: “Play. He says little horsie play”

8

When do kids begin to have two word utterances?

Around 2 years olds

9

Do K'iche' children develop language at the same rate as other kids?

No.

They were about 6 months behind in all aspects of language development

10

How did the Mohave traditionally view the fetus?

The fetus is born capable of understanding the adult language

11

How did the Samoan traditionally view the rules of etiquette for parents?

Rules of etiquette restrict parents from speaking to young infants

12

How did the Javanese traditionally view infants?

Infants are not yet human

13

What is Baby Talk?

The language used by anyone in the linguistic community when addressing a child

14

What is the Prosody of Baby Talk?

Higher pitch

More varied intonation

15

What are Lexical Baby Talk Features?

Special words like "nana", "tummy"

16

What is the Complexity of Baby Talk?

Shorter sentences

Fewer auxiliaries

17

What kind of Redundancy of Baby Talk?

More immediate repetition

Repetition of words & phrases

18

What sort of Content is in Baby Talk?

Topics in child's world

19

Who was Snow?

Psychologist at Harvard

20

What did Snow study?

Studied why we talk to kids

21

What did Snow find?

Found parents don't just talk to kids; they also wait for them to respond - almost like a conversation

22

What was Snow’s Hypothesis?

Infants are conversational partners

23

What was Kaye’s Hypothesis?

Parents may vary in their conversational expectations


Mother 1: Come on. Talk. Talk to me.
Mother 2: Is that a burp? Huh? Or are you going to get the hiccups? Huh?

One parent is a very directive parent where the other is much more open ending.

24

Do cultural attitudes influence child directed speech?

Yes

25

Do Western parents see children as conversational partners?

Yes

26

Who did Lewis study for his 3 Stages of Conversation?

Studied "K"

27

What is the first stage of Lewis’s 3 Stages of Conversation? When does it usually occur?

Earliest months

Child responds to adult acts with acts, some vocalization

28

What is the second stage of Lewis’s 3 Stages of Conversation? When does it usually occur?

1;0

Child responds to adult speech with acts; and to his/her own acts with speech

29

What is the third stage of Lewis’s 3 Stages of Conversation? When does it usually occur?

1;6

Child responds to speech with speech

30

Who coined the term "protoword"?

Halliday

31

Who did Halliday study?

His son Nigel

32

What did Halliday find in his study of his son Nigel?

Children's response to Speech is restricted to certain patterns, mostly responses

33

What are Halliday's “proto-dialogues"?

Early, restricted ways for the child to engage in conversation

34

Are responses to questions typical proto-dialogues?

Yes

F what‟s this one?
C dodo.

35

Are responses to commands typical proto-dialogues?

Yes

F Look.
C horsie.

36

Are responses to statements typical proto-dialogues?
Yes

F bye bye Dan.
C byebye dad.

Are imitations typical proto-dialogues?
Yes

F this is egg.
C egg.

37

Is child initiated speech a typical proto-dialogue?

Yes

C kitty cat.
F Yes, it‟s a kittycat.

38

Are proto-questions typical proto-dialogues?

Yes

"what's that?
"huh?"

39

What sort of proto-word did "K" use to keep people speaking to her?

“Huh?"

40

What are three approaches to studying the effects of environment on language development?

Experimental studies

Time 2 studies

Time 1 vs. Time 2 studies

41

What are Experimental Studies?

Ones where you control the environment

42

Do American Psychologists tend to do experimental experiments?

Yes

43

What is the Problem for experimental language development studies? How is this solved?

How do you control for input?

Using Artificial languages or Nonsense words/Nonwords
Using rare grammatical constructions

44

Why is it helpful to use Artificial languages or Nonsense words/Nonwords when doing experimental studies on language development?

Real languages are too vast and complex to control for anything

You create a "langauge" and see how long it take people to learn it

45

When were artificial language/nonword studies all the rage?

Was big in the 1920s-30s, 1950s-60s, and 1990s-2000

46

What was Dr. Ingram's artificial language study on?

Mini K'iche' (K'iche simplified)

Allowed for a real language in natural contex

47

What sorts of syntax might be looked in a rare construction language development study?

Passives

48

What was Dr. Ingram's rare construction language development study?

Past Participle study

0.02% of four year olds' utterances are passive sentences

0.5% of sentences that four year olds' hear are passive sentences

49

When you design a language development study, what should you take into account?

Frequency of presentation

Rate of presentation

Generalization (When does the subject begin to create new productions based on the input they had been given)

50

When were Time 2 Studies particularly common?

1970s

51

Why is it called a Time 2 study?

Because we want to know the effect over time

To do this you need at least two points in time

52

What are we looking at in a Time 2 study?

What in the mother's is influencing the child's speech

Correlate adult usage with child usage at a single point in time (Do parents who use more pronouns have children who use more pronouns?)

Correlation may be positive, negative, or none

53

What do Time 2 Studies assume?

Assumes that all children are at the same stage at stage one

54

What is the problem with Time 2 Studies?

Problem: cannot conclude causality from correlations

(Does the child use more pronouns because the parent does?)

(Does the parent use more pronouns because the child does?)

55

What are Time 1 vs. Time 2 Studies?

They correlate adult language at Time 1 with child's language at Time 2

56

Who did Schwartz & Terrell study in their "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?

12 kids

Ages: 1;0 to 1;3

57

What did Schwartz & Terrell study in their "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?

16 nonsense words

2 exemplars (meanings) for each word

10 sessions

Over a period of 16 weeks

58

What types of exemplars did Schwartz & Terrell use in their "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?

IP (infrequent presentation) exemplars presented once each session

FP (frequent presentation) exemplars presented twice each session

59

Which exemplar group named the most nonwords in Schwartz & Terrell's "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?

FP named almost half the words at least one

IP only named about a quarter

60

Which exemplar group needed more presentations of nonwords in Schwartz & Terrell's "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?

FP needed almost twice as many presentations before the word was spoken

61

What was similar between the two exemplar groups in Schwartz & Terrell's "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?

Both group needed about 5 sessions before they understood what was going on

62

What was the conclusion of Schwartz & Terrell's "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?

Amount of time (to digest the word) ended up being more important than frequency for when the first word was named

Rate is initially more important, and then frequency

63

Who did the Mothers of Referential vs Expressive Children experiment?

Della Corta et al.

64

Who did Della Corta study in her Mothers of Referential vs Expressive Children experiment?

5 mothers of Referential Children

5 mothers of Expressive Children

65

What did Della Corta do in her Mothers of Referential vs Expressive Children experiment?

Time 2 study of selected measures in language samples during different care taking events (bathing, dressing, etc.)

66

What were the two types of language samples that Della Corta focused on in her Mothers of Referential vs Expressive Children experiment?

Prescriptives: Commands made in an attempt to direct the child's behavior

Descriptives: Statements that describe

67

What can be concluded from Della Corta's Mothers of Referential vs Expressive Children experiment?

Mothers of referential children talk more and use more descriptive language.

68

Who sought to answer the question "Which aspects of language are most effected by differences in input?"

Furrow et al.

69

Who did Furrow study in his language acquisition experiment?

7 kids

Ages: 1;6 & 2;3

70

What did Furrow do in his language acquisition experiment?

Time 1 vs. Time 2 study

Wide range of language measures

71

What are Facilitative Effects? What Facilitative effects did Furrow find in his language acquisition experiment?

Positive Correlations

Being around adults who use more es/no questions & nouns will lead to more auxiliaries, verbs, and longer MLUs

72

What are Prohibitive Effects? What Prohibitive effects did Furrow find in his language acquisition experiment?

Negative Correlation

Being around adults who use more pronouns, verbs and & different words will lead to fewer verbs & shorter MLUs

73

How should we interpret the results from Furrow's language acquisition experiment?

Adult speech needs to be at some intermediate level of complexity

If it's too simple, children won‟t acquire all aspects of the grammar

If it's too complex, child may not be able to extract grammar