Flashcards in 3.1 - The Linguistic Environment Deck (74):
What is the Linguistic Environment?
The context of language
Piaget on Cultural Attitudes:
“...very rarely have I been able, in America, to expound any aspect of my stage theory without being asked 'How can I speed up development?”
No questions - just review
What did Pye notice about K'iche' parents? Why?
That they don't really talk to their kids
Children are at risk - fragile
Why do K'iche' parents believe that children are fragile?
High infant mortality rate
Protection of the "soul"
Talking loudly to a child might scare the scare out of it
Are most adults more animated when speaking to children vs. adults? How about K'iche' adults?
With K'iche' this is opposite
Do K'iche' parents speak for their children?
Do K'iche' parents play language games and/or songs with their kids?
What is a sample conversation between a K'iche' parent and their child?
Adult to Child: “Do you know what you are holding?”
Mother to Adult: “He says 'girl'"
Mother to Child: “You say little horsie” (2x)
Mother to Adult: “Play. He says little horsie play”
When do kids begin to have two word utterances?
Around 2 years olds
Do K'iche' children develop language at the same rate as other kids?
They were about 6 months behind in all aspects of language development
How did the Mohave traditionally view the fetus?
The fetus is born capable of understanding the adult language
How did the Samoan traditionally view the rules of etiquette for parents?
Rules of etiquette restrict parents from speaking to young infants
How did the Javanese traditionally view infants?
Infants are not yet human
What is Baby Talk?
The language used by anyone in the linguistic community when addressing a child
What is the Prosody of Baby Talk?
More varied intonation
What are Lexical Baby Talk Features?
Special words like "nana", "tummy"
What is the Complexity of Baby Talk?
What kind of Redundancy of Baby Talk?
More immediate repetition
Repetition of words & phrases
What sort of Content is in Baby Talk?
Topics in child's world
Who was Snow?
Psychologist at Harvard
What did Snow study?
Studied why we talk to kids
What did Snow find?
Found parents don't just talk to kids; they also wait for them to respond - almost like a conversation
What was Snow’s Hypothesis?
Infants are conversational partners
What was Kaye’s Hypothesis?
Parents may vary in their conversational expectations
Mother 1: Come on. Talk. Talk to me.
Mother 2: Is that a burp? Huh? Or are you going to get the hiccups? Huh?
One parent is a very directive parent where the other is much more open ending.
Do cultural attitudes influence child directed speech?
Do Western parents see children as conversational partners?
Who did Lewis study for his 3 Stages of Conversation?
What is the first stage of Lewis’s 3 Stages of Conversation? When does it usually occur?
Child responds to adult acts with acts, some vocalization
What is the second stage of Lewis’s 3 Stages of Conversation? When does it usually occur?
Child responds to adult speech with acts; and to his/her own acts with speech
What is the third stage of Lewis’s 3 Stages of Conversation? When does it usually occur?
Child responds to speech with speech
Who coined the term "protoword"?
Who did Halliday study?
His son Nigel
What did Halliday find in his study of his son Nigel?
Children's response to Speech is restricted to certain patterns, mostly responses
What are Halliday's “proto-dialogues"?
Early, restricted ways for the child to engage in conversation
Are responses to questions typical proto-dialogues?
F what‟s this one?
Are responses to commands typical proto-dialogues?
Are responses to statements typical proto-dialogues?
F bye bye Dan.
C byebye dad.
Are imitations typical proto-dialogues?
F this is egg.
Is child initiated speech a typical proto-dialogue?
C kitty cat.
F Yes, it‟s a kittycat.
Are proto-questions typical proto-dialogues?
What sort of proto-word did "K" use to keep people speaking to her?
What are three approaches to studying the effects of environment on language development?
Time 2 studies
Time 1 vs. Time 2 studies
What are Experimental Studies?
Ones where you control the environment
Do American Psychologists tend to do experimental experiments?
What is the Problem for experimental language development studies? How is this solved?
How do you control for input?
Using Artificial languages or Nonsense words/Nonwords
Using rare grammatical constructions
Why is it helpful to use Artificial languages or Nonsense words/Nonwords when doing experimental studies on language development?
Real languages are too vast and complex to control for anything
You create a "langauge" and see how long it take people to learn it
When were artificial language/nonword studies all the rage?
Was big in the 1920s-30s, 1950s-60s, and 1990s-2000
What was Dr. Ingram's artificial language study on?
Mini K'iche' (K'iche simplified)
Allowed for a real language in natural contex
What sorts of syntax might be looked in a rare construction language development study?
What was Dr. Ingram's rare construction language development study?
Past Participle study
0.02% of four year olds' utterances are passive sentences
0.5% of sentences that four year olds' hear are passive sentences
When you design a language development study, what should you take into account?
Frequency of presentation
Rate of presentation
Generalization (When does the subject begin to create new productions based on the input they had been given)
When were Time 2 Studies particularly common?
Why is it called a Time 2 study?
Because we want to know the effect over time
To do this you need at least two points in time
What are we looking at in a Time 2 study?
What in the mother's is influencing the child's speech
Correlate adult usage with child usage at a single point in time (Do parents who use more pronouns have children who use more pronouns?)
Correlation may be positive, negative, or none
What do Time 2 Studies assume?
Assumes that all children are at the same stage at stage one
What is the problem with Time 2 Studies?
Problem: cannot conclude causality from correlations
(Does the child use more pronouns because the parent does?)
(Does the parent use more pronouns because the child does?)
What are Time 1 vs. Time 2 Studies?
They correlate adult language at Time 1 with child's language at Time 2
Who did Schwartz & Terrell study in their "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?
Ages: 1;0 to 1;3
What did Schwartz & Terrell study in their "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?
16 nonsense words
2 exemplars (meanings) for each word
Over a period of 16 weeks
What types of exemplars did Schwartz & Terrell use in their "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?
IP (infrequent presentation) exemplars presented once each session
FP (frequent presentation) exemplars presented twice each session
Which exemplar group named the most nonwords in Schwartz & Terrell's "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?
FP named almost half the words at least one
IP only named about a quarter
Which exemplar group needed more presentations of nonwords in Schwartz & Terrell's "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?
FP needed almost twice as many presentations before the word was spoken
What was similar between the two exemplar groups in Schwartz & Terrell's "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?
Both group needed about 5 sessions before they understood what was going on
What was the conclusion of Schwartz & Terrell's "massed" vs "distributed" presentations experiment?
Amount of time (to digest the word) ended up being more important than frequency for when the first word was named
Rate is initially more important, and then frequency
Who did the Mothers of Referential vs Expressive Children experiment?
Della Corta et al.
Who did Della Corta study in her Mothers of Referential vs Expressive Children experiment?
5 mothers of Referential Children
5 mothers of Expressive Children
What did Della Corta do in her Mothers of Referential vs Expressive Children experiment?
Time 2 study of selected measures in language samples during different care taking events (bathing, dressing, etc.)
What were the two types of language samples that Della Corta focused on in her Mothers of Referential vs Expressive Children experiment?
Prescriptives: Commands made in an attempt to direct the child's behavior
Descriptives: Statements that describe
What can be concluded from Della Corta's Mothers of Referential vs Expressive Children experiment?
Mothers of referential children talk more and use more descriptive language.
Who sought to answer the question "Which aspects of language are most effected by differences in input?"
Furrow et al.
Who did Furrow study in his language acquisition experiment?
Ages: 1;6 & 2;3
What did Furrow do in his language acquisition experiment?
Time 1 vs. Time 2 study
Wide range of language measures
What are Facilitative Effects? What Facilitative effects did Furrow find in his language acquisition experiment?
Being around adults who use more es/no questions & nouns will lead to more auxiliaries, verbs, and longer MLUs
What are Prohibitive Effects? What Prohibitive effects did Furrow find in his language acquisition experiment?
Being around adults who use more pronouns, verbs and & different words will lead to fewer verbs & shorter MLUs