Flashcards in 1-4 - Prelinguistic Development: Production Deck (36):
What question does Speech Perception attempt to answer?
What does the infant discriminate?
What question does Speech Production attempt to answer?
What does the infant articulate?
What hypothesis of Speech Production did Jakobson offer?
Infants babble all sounds
It's the infant practicing
Is there evidence to support Jakobson's theory?
There is no evidence to support this
What hypothesis of Speech Production did Locke offer? How accurate was he?
Infants follow invariant stages
The range of speech sounds is not random; they are specific to the current stage.
Stops are more common. Fricatives are rare.
This was almost right
What hypothesis of Speech Production did de Boyssons- Bardies offer?
Infants follow stages with environmental effects (languages used around them) between 0;8 and 1;0
Babbling starts taking on native language characteristics about the same time as first words
What are the three methods to studying child speech production?
Study anatomical changes of speech tract
Transcribe speech sounds (adapt for properties above)
Is transcription of infants easy to do?
What sort of perceptual tasks are used to study child language production?
Asking listeners to ask what language infants are babbling in
What are the three differences between the infant and adult speech tracts?
Tongue size (large) and movements (front-to-back)
How did Betty Stark study child language production?
Auditory judgement-spectral feature
Listen & use spectrograms (Does it sound like a stop, fricative, etc.)
No specific sounds
How did Oller study child language production?
Is the child yelling or not?
Is the child blowing a raspberry?
What are Oller’s Stages?
Reflexive crying & vegetative (burping, throwing up, etc.) sounds
Cooing & laughter
When does Oller's Stage of Reflexive crying & vegetative sounds occur?
0;0 to 0;2
What happens during Oller's Stage of Reflexive crying & vegetative sounds?
Burping, throwing up, etc.
When does Oller's Stage of cooing & laughter occur?
0;2 to 0;4
What happens during Oller's Stage of cooing & laughter?
Oller liked to call it "gooing" instead of "cooing"
When does Oller's Stage of vocal play occur?
0;4 to 0;6
What happens during Oller's Stage of vocal play?
Raspberry, squeal, yell, growl, etc
Allows the child to practice speech parameters
When does Oller's Stage of Canonical Babbling occur?
0;6 and onward
What happens during Oller's Stage of Canonical Babbling?
Reduplication (Repeated consonant)
Variegation (Same Cs, Different Vs. Different Cs, Same Vs. /didodidodido/, /gogigogi/)
Not all babbling is canonical, but most of it is
When does Oller's Stage of Jargon occur?
0;10 and onward
What happens during Oller's Stage of Jargon?
Sentence like productions but meaningless
Sounds like real language but there's no meaning to it
What speech parameters does vocal play allow an infant to practice?
What are the four Metaphonological Parameters?
Resonance (vowels vs consonants)
Timing (breathing for CV sequences)
Amplitude (stress vs. unstressed)
Pitch (stress and intonation)
Does babbling equal first words?
What were the results of the French, Arabic, Chinese babbling recognition experiment?
Infants can be identified by language by 1;0
E.g. 76% at 0;8 identify French child
What did De Boysson-Bardies & Vihman study?
Looked at the manner of articulations being used in babbling
What languages did De Boysson-Bardies & Vihman look at?
How many infants did De Boysson-Bardies & Vihman look at per language? What age? How many words?
What hypothesis was supported by the findings of De Boysson-Bardies & Vihman?
Infants follow stages with environmental effects between 0;8-1;0
Early speech influenced by ______. When does this happen?
0;0 to 0;6 or so
Vocal play and babbling show practice of _______. When does this happen?
Main speech parameters
Speech begins to take on properties of the ______. When does this happen?
Who was Ray Kent?
Wrote phonetics textbook
Wrote paper on variegated utterances