1-4 - Prelinguistic Development: Production Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1-4 - Prelinguistic Development: Production Deck (36):
0

What question does Speech Perception attempt to answer?

What does the infant discriminate?

1

What question does Speech Production attempt to answer?

What does the infant articulate?

2

What hypothesis of Speech Production did Jakobson offer?

Infants babble all sounds

It's the infant practicing

3

Is there evidence to support Jakobson's theory?

There is no evidence to support this

4

What hypothesis of Speech Production did Locke offer? How accurate was he?

Infants follow invariant stages

The range of speech sounds is not random; they are specific to the current stage.

Stops are more common. Fricatives are rare.

This was almost right

5

What hypothesis of Speech Production did de Boyssons- Bardies offer?

Infants follow stages with environmental effects (languages used around them) between 0;8 and 1;0

Babbling starts taking on native language characteristics about the same time as first words

6

What are the three methods to studying child speech production?

Study anatomical changes of speech tract

Transcribe speech sounds (adapt for properties above)

Perceptual tasks

7

Is transcription of infants easy to do?

No

8

What sort of perceptual tasks are used to study child language production?

Asking listeners to ask what language infants are babbling in

9

What are the three differences between the infant and adult speech tracts?

Tongue size (large) and movements (front-to-back)

Pharynx

Respiration

10

How did Betty Stark study child language production?

Auditory judgement-spectral feature

Listen & use spectrograms (Does it sound like a stop, fricative, etc.)

No specific sounds

11

How did Oller study child language production?

Functional categorization

Is the child yelling or not?

Is the child blowing a raspberry?

12

What are Oller’s Stages?

Reflexive crying & vegetative (burping, throwing up, etc.) sounds

Cooing & laughter

Vocal Play

Canonical Babbling

Jargon

13

When does Oller's Stage of Reflexive crying & vegetative sounds occur?

0;0 to 0;2

14

What happens during Oller's Stage of Reflexive crying & vegetative sounds?

Burping, throwing up, etc.

15

When does Oller's Stage of cooing & laughter occur?

0;2 to 0;4

16

What happens during Oller's Stage of cooing & laughter?

Intentional sounds

Oller liked to call it "gooing" instead of "cooing"

17

When does Oller's Stage of vocal play occur?

0;4 to 0;6

18

What happens during Oller's Stage of vocal play?

Raspberry, squeal, yell, growl, etc

Allows the child to practice speech parameters

19

When does Oller's Stage of Canonical Babbling occur?

0;6 and onward

20

What happens during Oller's Stage of Canonical Babbling?

Reduplication (Repeated consonant)

Variegation (Same Cs, Different Vs. Different Cs, Same Vs. /didodidodido/, /gogigogi/)

Not all babbling is canonical, but most of it is

21

When does Oller's Stage of Jargon occur?

0;10 and onward

22

What happens during Oller's Stage of Jargon?

Sentence like productions but meaningless

Sounds like real language but there's no meaning to it

23

What speech parameters does vocal play allow an infant to practice?

Pitch

Loudness

Timing

Resonance

24

What are the four Metaphonological Parameters?

Resonance (vowels vs consonants)

Timing (breathing for CV sequences)

Amplitude (stress vs. unstressed)

Pitch (stress and intonation)

25

Does babbling equal first words?

No

26

What were the results of the French, Arabic, Chinese babbling recognition experiment?

Infants can be identified by language by 1;0

E.g. 76% at 0;8 identify French child

27

What did De Boysson-Bardies & Vihman study?

Looked at the manner of articulations being used in babbling

28

What languages did De Boysson-Bardies & Vihman look at?

French

English

Japanese

Swedish

29

How many infants did De Boysson-Bardies & Vihman look at per language? What age? How many words?

5

0;9

25 words

30

What hypothesis was supported by the findings of De Boysson-Bardies & Vihman?

Infants follow stages with environmental effects between 0;8-1;0

31

Early speech influenced by ______. When does this happen?

Anatomical change

0;0 to 0;6 or so

32

Vocal play and babbling show practice of _______. When does this happen?

Main speech parameters

0;6 onward

33

Speech begins to take on properties of the ______. When does this happen?

Native language

Around 1;0

34

Who was Ray Kent?

Wrote phonetics textbook

Wrote paper on variegated utterances

35

What did Kent think about Oller's belief canonical babbling precedes variegated babbling?

That he was wrong