2-4 - Overextensions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2-4 - Overextensions Deck (28):
1

What are Overextensions?

When a child uses a word in a wider range on contexts than is used in the target language

2

What is the General Pattern of Word Use?

Underextensions

Overextension

Appropriate Use

3

What are Underextensions?

Using a word in a narrower sense than the actual meaning of the word

(Only uses "doggie" for the family dog)

Tends to be context sensitive

4

Do children tend to be pretty conservative learners?

Yes

5

Do children have a tendancy not to overextend something they are acquiring?

Yes

The child may be able to say: "cookie", "apple", & "banana". The child may still only say "eat cookie" but not "eat apple" nor "eat banana"

6

What happened when the kid who moved to India and learned to speak Garo, moved back to California?

He would not speak Garo anymore.

He was removed from the context

Kids don't naturally generalize

7

How did Piaget's son use "bowwow" at 1;2 (34)?

To a dog, a hen, a cow-bell, cows, guinea pigs and a cat.

8

How did Piaget's son use "bowwow" at 1;3 (5)?

To anything moving

From an ant to a tractor

9

How did Piaget's son use "bowwow" at 1;3 (13)?

He differentated

“Moo” for cows & deer

“Kitty” for cats

Pigs were either “moo” or “kitty”

10

How did Laura use “ball” at 1;0(9)?

Picture of ball in book

11

How did Laura use “ball” at 1;0(9) - 1;4?

A ball

Round objects (orange, grapefruit, buzzer)

Request for servings of liquid in cup

12

How did Laura use “cookie” at 1;0(9)?

For cookies

13

How did Laura use “cookie” at 1;0(9) - 1;4?

Novel round foods (cheerios, cucumber)

Record players or music on hi-fi or car radio

Rocking and/or rocking chair

Ice cream

14

What are two kinds of Overextensions?

Categorical Overextensions

Analogical Overextensions

15

What are Categorical Overextensions?

Assigning a word a higher order category/semantic category

Examples:

- ‘dada’ for mother or caregiver
- ‘truck’ for bus or vehicle
- ‘apple’ for orange or fruit

16

What are Analogical Overextensions?

There is not a clear categorical relation

More rare

17

What are three types of Analogical Overextensions?

Perceptual

Functional

Affective

18

What is a Perceptual Analogical Overextension?

‘tick tock’ for sound of water

19

What is a Functional Analogical Overextension?

‘hat’ for basket on head

20

What is a Affective Analogical Overextension?

‘hot’ for objects that are forbidden to touch

21

What did Leslie Rescorla study in 1980 at Yale?

6 children

First 75 words

Overextensions

22

Leslie Rescorla found that _____% of words overextended and that ____ words made up ____% of all the overextensions.

33%

12

29%

23

What sorts of words made up the majority of overextensions?

Categorical Overextensions

Earliest words

24

What did Thompson & Chapman study in 1977?

5 children

4 overextended words from each child

Picture task to test comprehension

25

What did Thompson & Chapman find?

That some kids overextend in comprehension but most don't

26

What are the 5 possible reasons for overextensions?

1. Children have limited symbolic ability

2. Incomplete semantics, e.g. (+animate, + 4 legs)

3. Limited vocabulary (using a known word for an unknown word)

4. Retrieval problems (using an earlier word instead of a later word)

5. Phonological simplicity (one word is easier to say)

27

What did Dr. Ingram and the mother find with Claire?

Evidence for all 5 possible reasons for overextensions.

28

What is Dr. Ingram's conclusion on the cause of overextensions?

There may no single reason for overextensions.

All five explanations may play a role