3.-1 - Grammatical Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.-1 - Grammatical Development Deck (95):
0

Does sentence development continue to develop after Brown's stages?

Yes

Kids MLUs continue to expand for years upon years

1

How many verbs did Dr. Ingram look at in his Past Particple Study?

300 of the most frequent verbs

2

____% of the most frequent English verbs do not have a past participle

75%

3

When verbs end in -en (taken, broken, etc.), do the past and past participle match?

No

Taken (present) -> Took

Broken (past) -> Broke

Done (unique) -> Did

4

What is the new English Verb Shift?

Perfect ("have ate") with the Passive ("Was eaten")

5

When are past participles acquired?

Between 6 and 10 - especially {-en}

6

What are Syntactical Rules?

Rules that combine words into sentencees

S -> NP + VP

NP -> Art + (Adj) + N

VP -> V + (NP)

7

What are Morphological Rules?

Rules that form words

N + plural or possisive

8

How long does Grammatical Development take?

Many, many years

9

What are the five stages of Grammatical Development?

Holophrases

Two word utterance

Telegraphoic sentences

Simple sentetence (Sentences have verbs)

Complex sentences

10

When can we say that children has syntax?

Still being debated

11

What is Grammatical Knowledge?

Word order

"fish eat" vs. "eat fish"

12

Does English has strict word order?

Yes

13

What are Phrases?

Noun Phrase

Verb Phrase

14

Can we know if a child is using phrases before they start using articles?

No

15

What are Grammatical Relations?

Subject, Verb, Object ("Dog eat bone")

16

Is it hard to tell to use semantics to tell how a child is using phrases?

Yes

"Dog open door" vs. "Key open door" vs. "Wind open door"

17

Does the addition of "is...-ing" lets us know that the child has syntactic rules?

Yes

18

Is there evidence that children have some knowledge of grammar in single word phrases (holophrases)?

(2)

No. They only produce one word at a time.

Yes. Evidence exists in comprehension studies.

19

What was the first Comprehension Task given to see if children in the single word phase have some semblance of grammar?

Children were asked to follow 3 kinds of commands

- Noun only ("Ball")
- Telegraphic ("Throw Ball")
- Well formed ("Throw me the ball")

20

What were the results from the first Single Word Comprehension Task?

Children prefer well formed commands

21

What was the second Comprehension Task given to see if children in the single word phase have some semblance of grammar?

Children were given novel commands

- Verbs (Smell, Kiss)
- Nouns (Truck, Doll)

"Smell truck"

22

What were the results from the second Single Word Comprehension Task?

Kids could follow these novel combinations

23

Children around _____ show evidence of understanding word combinations.

1;6

24

What are the two first grammatical combos that children seem to understand and say?

Verb+ Object ("Throw ball")

Possessor + Possessed ("Daddy sock", "Mommy sock")

25

What are some of the range of functional meanings that might be seen in Holophrastic Productions?

Commands

Requests

Comments

26

What are some of the range of contexual meanings that might be seen in Holophrastic Productions?

Actors

Objects

Locations

27

Does the contextual meaning of holophrastic phrases probably start out narrow and then broaden?

Yes

28

Do two individual words that are strung together (“mommy” “sock”) eventually blend into a two word utterance (“mommy sock”)?

Yes

29

Bloom Example:

What did Allison want?

Allison: “up”
Mother: “What?”
Allison: “neck”
“up”
Mother: “neck? What do you want?”
Allison: “neck”
“zip”

Her mother to zip up her coat

30

Before children produce word combinations, do they show comprehension of some two-word combinations?

Yes

31

Before children produce word combinations, do they produce sequences of single-word utterances about a single event?

Yes

32

Say that at age 1;0 you get first words and at 1;6 you get two word uttereances. The inbetween time is considered to be the ______.

Does Dr. Ingram think this is a single stage?

Single/word holographic stage

Dr. Ingrams doesn't think this is a single stage but that there is a lot of stuff going on, that it's a progression of skill.

33

Sequences of single-word utterances probably happen towards the end of the holographic period. Maybe around ______.

1;4

1;0 = "cat"
1;4 = "cat" "see"
1;6 = "see cat"
1;8 = "Mommy" "see cat"

34

As children are learning to string words together, might they have some awareness that words combine to form sentences (richer interpretation)?

Yes

35

Are Early Word Combinations syntactic or semantic?

Syntactic

36

A child usually has their first word combinations around ______.

1;6

37

Do early word combinations develop quickly or slowly?

Slowly

38

Graphs of Growth Curves show that ___ out of ___ children show a syntactic spurt.

3 out of 4

39

Did Jennika show a word spurt?

No.

She did not double her rate each month

40

Does data prove that there is a syntactic spurt?

No

41

What is a Syntactic type?

A unique sentence (as opposed to repeating the same sentence)

42

Which is the better measure: Syntactic Types or MLUs?

Syntactic Types

43

Who came up with Semantic Relations?

Brown

44

Do Semantic Relations offer Rich or Lean Interpretations?

Lean

45

Is there is a discontinuity problem in language acquisition?

Yes

46

What are Semantic Relations?

When kids start putting words together, they only connect words because they want to link them semantically. ("eat" + "banana", "see" + "movie")

47

Who came up with Primitive Syntactic Categories?

Braine

48

Do Primitive Syntactic Categories offer Rich or Lean Interpretations?

Lean

49

Do Primitive Syntactic Categories state that grammar does begin in the beginning but there is not much grammar?

Yes

50

Is there a relationship between lexical/content words and grammatical/funciton words?

Yes

51

Do function words tell us more about the lexical words and thus form a grammatical unit?

Yes

52

Do function words have a fixed position?

Yes

53

Are function words usually used alone?

No

54

What are Primitive Syntactic Categories?

Function words are used as "pivot words" that a child uses to attach other lexical word to create novel utterance

These become the future grammatical morphemes

55

Primitive Syntactic Categories states that the child isn't just linking words ______; they are building a _______.

Semantically

Primitive grammar

56

Who came up with Grammatical Relations?

Pinker

57

Do Grammatical Relations off Rich or Lean Interpretations?

Rich

58

Do Grammatical Relations state that no theory can be accurate unless it accounts for the discontinuity problem?

Yes

59

What questions does the Grammatical Relations Theory seek to answer?

How can you move to no grammar to having grammar?

Where does the grammar come from?

60

How does Brown explain the emergence of grammar?

It is due to maturation

61

How does Pinker explain the emergence of grammar?

By assuming that kids have grammar from the beginning

62

How did Brown study Semantic Relations?

Looking at 18 children across 5 languages

63

What did Brown find in his study on Semantic Relations?

(3)

All children acquire a small set of basic semantic relations

Kids talk about the same things (Eating, playing games, etc.)

Children use these eventually to require the grammar of the specific languages

64

What are the types of Semantic Relations?

Action Based

Nominal Based

65

What are the types of Action Based Semantic Relations?

Agent + Action

Action + Object

Action + Location

66

What is an Agent + Action, Action Based, Semantic Relations?

"dog bark"

"daddy go"

67

What is an Agent + Object, Action Based, Semantic Relations?

"eat bone"

68

What is an Agent + Location, Action Based, Semantic Relations?

"put here"

69

What are the types of Nominal Based Semantic Relations?

Recurrence

Nonexistence

Possessor Possession

Entity + Attribute

70

What is a Recurrence, Nominal Based, Semantic Relations?

"more cookie"

71

What is a Nonexistence, Nominal Based, Semantic Relations?

"no cookie"

72

What is a Possessor Possession, Nominal Based, Semantic Relations?

"mommy sock"

73

What is a Entity + Attribute , Nominal Based, Semantic Relations?

"dog loud"

74

Brown said that if a kid knows "agent-action" and "action object", this does not mean that they know __________.

"agent-action-object"

75

Are Action Based and Nominal Based Semantic Relations independent of each other?

Yes, they are independent of each other.

There no evidence of ‘actor action object’ ("doggie eat bone")

76

In the Primitive Syntactic Classes, pivot words are those that are ______ and in a _____ position.

Frequent

Fixed position

77

Is the fixed position of pivot words initial or final?

Either

78

Can pivot words occur alone?

No

79

Can pivot words occur together?

No

80

Do open class occur in any position?

Yes

81

Do open class occur alone?

Yes

82

Can open class occur together?

Yes

83

What is Pivot Grammar?

Child learns two basic categories of words

84

What are the two categories in Pivot Grammar?

Grammatical words

Lexical words

85

Do Pivots eventually become grammatical words?

Yes

86

What do Open Words eventually become?

Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

Adverbs

87

Brown's critique of Pivot Grammar was based kids in ______. Braine's research was based on kids in ______.

Late stage I

Early stage I

88

What theory did Pinker base his Grammatical Relations on?

Occam's Razor

That the simpliest explaination is the better explaination

89

Is Grammatical Continuity or Grammatical Discontinuity more complex?

Grammatical Discontinuity

90

What is the question posed by Grammatical Discontinuity?

How does child get to the adult grammar?

91

What is Grammatical Continuity?

Child begins with an adult-like grammar

92

What is Semantic Bootstrapping?

Syntactic categories are inferred from semantic relations

Semantic relations force syntactic relations

93

Does Pinker make a logical argument or an empirical one (one that can be tested)?

Logical

94

When assessing a child, do we need to consider the level of the child as well as their individual differences?

Yes